Hiking a LARGE SCALE mountain linear is difficult; let’s present one that can be hiked and ANALYZED, LOCALLY. The DOUBLE Virgin River BEND is such an INCIPIENT DEVELOPMENT, and can be explored completely- mostly by auto:
Notice several FEATURES which will be the KEYS to understanding the LINEAR Mountain Range DEVELOPMENT:
1. The ANTICLINE along the Virgin river is essentially LINEAR- ignoring subsequent SMALL MEANDERS and Protrusions;
2. The anticline lies WITHIN a POLYGON- 8 sides in this case, making it an OCTAGON with eight 45 degree TURNS;
3. A young VOLCANO (LEEDS- 60 k.y.) lies at the FULCRUM of the 45 degree turn;
4. The SHARP TURN to the left “kicks up” Red Mountain, similarly to gravels being kicked up on the right side after a SHARP left turn in your auto (this is from GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY- moving the CRUST LATERALLY); and,
4. There occur BASINS on either side- the highest in elevation being on the inside of the polygon. This anticline is SPREADING, THRUSTING, and covering more ground as time ensues. You can CALCULATE its AGE by using the EARTH TIDAL RATE and the CREST-TO-CREST WIDTH: AGE= width/24.1 mm/yr.- about 82,988 years for Quail Lake.
BELOW are ANALYSES and drafts not published, which NOW should INCORPORATE the important POLYGON LINEAR SHEARING (found subsequently). This will be UPDATED and revised as more cases are developed:
Below are the steps in progression of Large Features, with Geologic Time of appearance:
1. Starting with the Laramide Revolution, LR, which probably is related to the major EVENT off Yucatan. The whole Western USA reacted-not only in the short term, but on the scale of tens of millions of years. The Rocky mountains continued to rise as part of a hemisphere phenomenon, stretching from Alaska to the southern part of south America.This is our base of reference, and we will assume that features previous to the LR have been offset or modified. We will try to relate this sequence to that which happened post-Permian off Australia in the reaction to the Paleozoic extinction (a correlation will be made along-side the important steps, for the SE Asia and Australia area).
2. The Colorado Plateau, CP, began to rise at 41 m.y (as shown by the radiometric AGE of craters in Llano Quemado (burnt plain, in Spanish), near Taos, NM, and continues, accentuated by the San Juan uplift. This will be presented- AT THE END OF THIS BLOG- in relation to that which is occurring on a small-scale, for the Sand Mountain (also an uplift) in the Hurricane ,Utah region. Refer to the rise of Australia, and the development of the East Indies after the Bedout, or similar EVENT;
3. The termination of the Laramide is noted by the isolation of the region, by inner drainage lakes in the Eocene, and this marks the end of the initial WESTERN USA compression stress phase (although uplift continues and compression is the normal stress in CP today). Australia has risen sufficiently to create Coriolis rotation- which is CW, with rising-in the southern hemisphere;
4. CP became sufficiently elevated to create CCW rotation, and the region is made distinct by the Wasatch Line, which is a demarcation between a rising area- CP- and a sink- B&R to the west.
Sierras act as a vertically-rotating semi-cylinder, with CCW SPIN looking NW.The Sierra Range is entirely located in California, and essentially parallels the CA-NV border, separated from the line by the Death Valley NP. It is also bounded on the SW by the Central Valley, on the SE by the Garlock fault (which traces almost eastward), and by the Cascades on the NW. Mount Lassen active volcano defines the 40N latitude above which there is subduction and below which there are no active volcanoes. The Garlock fault location shows that this results from the movement of the Sierra-Central Valley system moving westward. It is my conclusion that the system is being shoved by the tidal force of the Moon to the west relative to surrounding lowlands. Below is a diagram of the S-CV system as it appears from space:
The first observation is that the Coriolis cells exhibit sharp valleys and shear features on the east side, but not on the west.
This is normal for all cells analyzed in the USA, where uplift, vulcanism, and higher elevations occur.
THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE SIERRAS ARE SHOWN- WHERE THE ACTION OF MAMMOTH HOT SPRINGS, E-W FAULTING, AND GREAT EARTHQUAKES ARE EXHIBITED:
ONE DIFFICULTY THAT MUST BE OVERCOME IS THAT OF THE ORIENTATION OF THE SIERRAS, VERSUS THAT OF THE LARAMIDE, WHEN IT WAS INITIATED. THE LARAMIDE MOVED EASTERLY OR POSSIBLY ENE, WHILE THE SIERRAS DO NOT ORIENT PERPENDICULAR TO THAT. EITHER THE SIERRAS HAVE ROTATED (WHICH, I THINK, HAVE NOT MOVED SUFFICIENTLY) OR THE CHAIN HAS BEEN INFLUENCED BY ANOTHER ENTITY. THERE ARE SOME FAINT TRANSFORMS IN THE OFFSHORE CA, WHICH INDICATE THAT THERE WAS AN ORIGINAL ENE MOVEMENT, AND THAT WOULD SOLVE THE PROBLEM- THE COMPRESSION WOULD HAVE INITIATED THE CHAIN, AND IF IT REMAINED TO THIS DAY (EXCEPT FOR MINOR ROTATIONS) THE CHAIN AND THE COASTLINE WOULD HAVE THE ORIGINAL ORIENTATION.
Assuming that the Sierras have rotated CCW (as shown by the larger distance along-Garlock fault- L.A. coast compared to Mendocino movement on the south side of the fault), then the transform oriented ENE toward the Coloma River, CA will approximate a perpendicular indication to the Sierras. This would agree with the general movement of the Laramide to the ENE, creating the orientation of the Sierras in their present configuration (allowing for some CCW rotation since their inception.
ASSUMING THAT THE AMERICAN, LAST, AND COLOMA RIVERS YIELD TRACES, WHICH WERE CREATED PRE- AND POST-TERTIARY TIMES, THE ROTATION OF THE SIERRAS MAY BE SEEN AS apprximately 10 DEGREES CCW. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT, BUT INDICATES THAT THE LARAMIDE ORIENTATION OF THE CHAIN IS CLOSE TO THE ORIGINAL AT 65 M.Y. AND THAT THE ROTATION HAS PROCEEDED BY CORIOLIS ACTION ON THE WHOLE RANGE. WE NOW MUST DETERMINE WHETHER THE ACTION OCCURRED AT THE SAME TIME AS THE ROCKY MT. SHOVE- BUT DISPLACED BY MORE THAN 1000 KM. THIS SEEMS UNLIKELY, BUT IT MAY BE THAT SIMULTANEOUS SHOVES TO THE EAST OCCURRED (THIS ELIMINATES THE NEVADAN AND SEVIER OROGENIES FROM CONSIDERATION AS BEING PREPARATORY TO THE LARAMIDE SHOVE TO THE EAST- AT A LATER TIME- SINCE THE KT EVENT REPRESENTS A MAJOR DISCONTINUITY IN THE PROGRESSION). WHY AM I SELECTING THE AMERICAN RIVER AS THE YOUNGEST AND THEREFOR THE ONE INDICATING PRESENT REFERENCE? BECAUSE THE AMERICAN IS ORTHOGONAL TO THE PRESENT SIERRAS, AND THE COLOMA IS NOT, ADDITIONALLY, THE COLOMA TRACE IN THE PACIFIC BASIN IS THE FAINTEST. Looking again at the Mendocino location, we see why the part south of the cape moves westward, while the part north moves eastward (called SUBDUCTION by geologists):