## Friday, December 25, 2009

### Coriolis Rotations aid in understanding EARTH PUZZLES

THE PUZZLE OF REJUVENATION IS SOLVED WITH CW ROTATION OF SHRINKING AND COOLING MAGMA, OCCURRING AFTER PRIMARY EXTRUSION HAS TERMINATED. HEAT OF FRICTION FROM BRITTLE CRUST SCRAPING AGAINST NEIGHBORING ROCK CREATES SMALL MAGMA CHAMBERS LONG AFTER INITIAL MAGMA HAS COOLED! NOTE THE SMALL VENT, NAMED WAIKAPU- WHICH IS LOCATED BY A DRAINAGE BETWEEN HALEAKALA AND VOLCANO TO THE WEST. REJUVENATION CONE COMPOSITION HAS DIFFERENT COMPONENTS AFTER INCORPORATION OF SEA WATER, REEF MATERIAL, AND WEATHERING.

Coriolis Force creates almost All Known Geology Puzzles via LOCAL AND REGIONAL Rotation of the Earth’s Crust
Coriolis Force is most easily seen when draining the bathtub. As the water exits, it spirals counter-clock-wise, CCW, north of the Equator. It is generally ignored, since the flow direction may be reversed by simply intervening and rotating one’s finger in the opposite directories- creating clockwise flow. It is seen by most people as a weak force, and it is caused by the SPIN OF THE EARTH.
At the Equator, the surface velocity (relative to an outer space position, or to the NORTH POLE) of anything on a latitude line is approximately 1000 miles per hour, mph, due to the Earth’s spin. This surface velocity becomes less for any latitude north or south of this location, relative to the earth. At the North Pole, the velocity is zero, even though the angular spin is the same- one revolution per day.
Moving northward from the Equator, the surface velocity lessens about 10 nautical miles for each degree of Latitude increase. Consequently, when a rocket is fired northward from the Equator, the surface of the Earth under it does not move as fast as it did when the rocket was fired. The result is a movement to the right as the rocket encounters higher Latitudes. This occurs even when the rocket is fired southward, since the Earth now moves faster to the left under the rocket, and the rocket doesn’t keep up- again resulting in a rightward move in the northern hemisphere. When watching weather systems (moving air), this results in a CCW rotation for low pressure cells (weather-producing, where the air is moving toward the center of the cell) and CW rotation for high-pressure cells (fair weather and sunny skies, moving outward from the pressure source).
This movement depends upon the viscosity of the system, and since air has the smallest viscosity, the weather systems move across the screen and rotate quickly- on a daily basis. The same result occurs for the earth’s Crust, except now the viscosity is much more- on the order of a 100 million times as much as for air. The movement is not noticed by observers on the Earth, since in most cases the velocity is on the order of a millimeter, mm, per year. This is about the thickness of a fingernail, and mostly can be ignored. However, for the earth and Geologic time (in millions of years), this small movement becomes significant- one kilometer per million years.
Considering that 65 million years have occurred since the Dinosaurs have been extinct, the movement of 65 km since this Cretaceous time is very noticeable. As an example, rock rotating along the great Basin and Range, B&R, lateral fault noticeable in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone (Aztec in Nevada), has moved from southern Utah to the Valley of Fire State Park in NV, during this span of time. This lateral displacement may be insignificant for Man’s lifetime scale, but important when finding that the movement of the rock has created a GEOLOGICAL ANOMALY.
These rotating cells are easily seen on the Google Earth map- as circular features creating arcuate river paths or as fossil traces on the surface of the earth. They rotate CW for sinking areas (basins or sinking ground), and CCW for rising areas (mountains, magmas, or salt domes). The rotation orientation may be noticed by looking for the drag of river banks- one side relative to the other. In the field, the rotation creates what is known as slickensides- slick silicate surfaces on rock which may shine in the sunlight (even on dark limestone). Sometimes they will exhibit striations or etched parallel lines showing the lateral movement- with claw marks showing that a pebble in the rock has dug into the opposite side to show direction of drag.
Use of this technique simplifies structural geology considerably, since with its use the fault reversal noticed near vulcanism is related to the original heating (rise) of the magma, versus the shrinking (sinking) of the cooling mass (SOMETIMES ALLOWING THE CRUST TO REVERSE ITS DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT). Other enigmas include the occurrence of rejuvenation cones on the islands of Hawaii, where two cooling volcanoes rotate similarly (Maui), creating friction and heat between them (end result- a small cone, Waikapu). These anomalies are easily found by locating circular river paths on Google Earth photos. Circular cells adjacent to an arcuate river path rotate CW on the inside of a circular path (sinking), while uplifts or hills and mountains rotate CCW (uplift) on the outside adjacent contact of a circular river path. Case studies show that most of the Anomalies not understood by Geologists can be clarified with the use of a few Coriolis Rules. These will be enumerated for cases shown further down in the Blog.
LATER TREATISES ARE MORE ACCURATE THAN EARLIER ONES, SINCE MORE CASES HAVE BEEN ANALYZED

To be continued, but many cases are shown earlier in the BLOG- SCROLL DOWN!
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Pulsing and rotating of the CRUST about the Hurricane Fault is shown in photos above and below: This is seen also for the terraces near the town of VIRGIN- PROCEEDING INTO KOLOB CANYON: This is exemplified by a DIAGRAM- which shows the movements,both vertically and horizontally, for outcrops found near the Grass Valley crater, Hurricane, Utah:

## Thursday, December 24, 2009

### DEATH VALLEY RESULTS FROM MANTLE MOVING EASTWARD, CONFLICTING WITH SLOWING EQUATORIAL BULGE MOVING CRUST WESTWARD

MANTLE DRAG-MOUNTAIN AUGMENTED CRUSTAL SHEAR or MAD-MACS is my acronym for this:
Above is a Google photo of the central part of the Death Valley, DV, National Park. It is the locus of our activities interested in finding the larger rotations and linears creating the entity. There is mainly right-lateral faulting there, but also interference between two large outside rotations- the Sierra-Central Valley couplet ellipse, and the Basin and Range, B&R, CW rotation about the state of NV and part of UT.
Notice that North is diagonal to the map- parallel to the NV border with CA which is at the top of the map. Study the large valleys first, to determine the principal movements (Valleys show the low part of a rotation, which indicates CW movement; mountains, if independant, show the uplift and CCW rotation). When two movements are combined (as in this view), a couplet is created and slickensides must be found to determine the direction and orientation of the Coriolis cell.
A LOCATOR MAP IS SHOWN ABOVE, TO ORIENT ONE FOR THE VAST DISTANCES INVOLVED:
Above Google Photo introduces the complexity exhibited in Death Valley, DV, Park- where there are at least two large features impinging upon the region. The Basin and Range, B&R, rotates CW around the states of NV and part of UT (EAST), and the Sacramento-Sierra couplet exists to the west. The result is an ellipse, oriented NW-SE between the two larger entities. This is expanded below (Note that the photo is arranged NW-SE, between the border of NV and inside CA):
Upon driving into Beatty, NV from Las Vegas, where the great Lateral fault surrounding NV has been analyzed, I found that Beatty is located in the midst of extrusives, hot springs, and other anomlous GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA.
CLOSEUP OF BEATTY AND SURROUNDING MINES AND CORIOLIS CELLS: Realizing that this may be the edge of the shear zone found at the edge of the B&R fault, I made the following Google and personal photos:

Field work in Death Valley allows inspection of SLICKENSIDES- which show the lateral movement in canyons. The photo below shows iron-faced slicks on sandstone:
More Slickensides: In Titus Canyon, the PreCambrian dolomites do not exhibit slickensides of silicated faces- rather they portray pressured carbonates (solubility increases with shear pressure), which coated the shear surface with travertine upon release of pressure:

Normally, volcanic vents occur on the east side of Badwater Basin, because that is where the brittle friction, CREATED BY LATERALLY-SHEARING FAULTS, TRANSPIRES. However, where there is rotation at a canyon mouth, as in the following 2 photos, HEAT IS GENERATED BY AN OPENING (SEPARATION OF TWO ROTATING CELLS) WHICH ALLOWS THE MAGMA TO EXTRUDE- as in the Panamint Range to the west:

GARLOCK FAULT FROM THE LOS ANGELES AREA EXTENDS TO THE SOUTHERN PART OF DEATH VALLEY (AND THEN CEASES- WHICH IS A MAJOR CLUE).
This feature determines the anomalous behavior of DV, since the fault moves crust eastward on the SOUTH SIDE. Conversely, a glance at the coast of CA tells that the NORTH SIDE OF THE FAULT is moving westward. TO confirm this behavior, note the TRANSFORM SHEARING THE OCEANIC CRUST ALL THE WAY TO MIDWAY ISLAND. Further agreement is noticed with the kink in the HI-Emperor seamount chain, which occurs at this Midway location (28 m.y. measured age). The chain is diverted eastward south of the island, and westward north of Midway.
My reasoning for the inflection in the chain has to do with the influence of two major entities determining the dynamic behavior of the CRUST:
1. Coriolis Rotation determines the movement of most Crustal cells between 40N and 40S latitudes, except for the zone between 10N and 10S- where the difference between velocities of the surface of the earth between latitude lines is almost negligible.
This dynamic force is due to THE SPIN OF THE EARTH.
2. The Equatorial Bulge, EB, terminates near the 40 latitudes- WHERE LATERAL SHEAR OCCURS- but ALSO has its effect where there is a major MOUNTAIN RANGE- SUCH AS THE SIERRAS- AT WHICH LATITUDINAL SPREAD THE CRUST IS MOVED WESTWARD MORESO THAN OTHERWISE (THIS REPRESENTS AN INCREASE IN CRUSTAL THICKNESS, UPON WHICH TIDAL INFLUENCES FROM THE MOON INCREASE). THIS MECHANICAL INFLUENCE IS DUE TO THE SLOWING OF THE EARTH AS TIDAL FRICTION BETWEEN MOON AND EARTH CONTINUE (WITH ALL TIME)!

As a consequence of this conflict, EB is dominant whenever there is an significant increase in CRUSTAL THICKNESS, and Coriolis Rotation is dominant whenever the Mantle drags the base of the crust- which is the normal case.
Following oceanic transforms across the Pacific demonstrates that shear occurs westward of 40N and from protruding coastlines, such as that at Los Angeles and Mendocino, CA.

The connection between the Midway I. transform and the Garlock-DV southern boundary is shown below:

WE WILL PORTRAY THIS BEHAVIOR, AND HOW IT INFLUENCES DEATH VALLEY WITH THE DIAGRAM BELOW- WHICH SHOWS THAT THE DV PHENOMENON TERMINATES AT ITS SOUTH BOUNDARY WHERE THE GARLOCK FAULT OCCURS.

PACIFIC BASIN TRANSFORMS LOCATION AND ORIENTATION ARE DETERMINED BY THE DISTRIBUTION OF PROTRUDING MOUNTAIN RANGES TO THE EAST

Here is the correlation:
1. Equatorial Bulge, EB, and other protruding CRUST RESULT IN INCREASED TIDAL DRAG FROM THE MOON. This drag causes westward shear of Latitudinal Blocks, where a mountain range height adds to EB- augmenting the total drag and shear;
2. The first transform occurring in EB is that at 40N (Mendocino, CA), which proceeds to the 41 m.y. KINK IN THE HI-EMPEROR CHAIN. Consequently the most noticeable effect is along this TRANSFORM, WHICH STARTS AT THE LATITUDE OF THE NORTH BOUNDARY OF THE SIERRAS. The Sierras are being shoved westward due to the tidal drag, and they orient NW-SE, because of the addition of EB plus MOUNTAIN PROTRUSION INCREASING TO THE SOUTH (TOWARD THE EQUATOR);
3. CESSATION OF THE SIERRAS CORRELATES (PROCEEDING SOUTHWARD) WITH THE SECOND PACIFIC TRANSFORM- WHICH CREATES THE GARLOCK E-W FAULT. This system of faults also correlates with the beginning of the open desert and with the location of DEATH VALLEY- which represents a transition between the SIERRAS’ LOCATION AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BASIN AND RANGE, B&R, AND COLORADO PLATEAU, CP;
4. IN OTHER WORDS, WHERE THERE ARE HIGH MOUNTAIN RANGES, THERE OCCURS INCREASED WESTWARD SHEAR, AND WHERE THERE IS LOW DESERT, THE DRAG OF THE MANTLE IS TOWARD THE EAST (RATHER THAN WEST FOR THE TIDAL DRAG);
5. THIS PORTRAIT DETERMNES THE ORIENTATION AND LOCATION OF THE PACIFIC HOURGLASS- WHERE ITS SYMMETRY IS DETERMINED BY THE LOCATION OF THE TWO MAJOR TRANSFORMS: MIDWAY AND THE 41 M.Y. KINK IN THE HI-EMEROR SEAMOUNT CHAIN (AND WHERE ITS CENTERLINE ORIENTATION IS ALSO NW-SE, SIMILARLY TO THE COAST LINE OF CA);
6. Maui sits astride another major transform, and below this latitude there is again westward shear- which is correlated with the reappearance of a westward jutting peninsula and high elevation in Baja Peninsula, Mexico. THE CORRELATION BECOMES LESS IMPORTANT WITH THE INCREASING EB TO THE SOUTH, AND THE EASTWARD-MOVING CENTRAL AMERICA AND WEST INDIES ISLANDS INDICATE THAT EB DOMINATES THIS REGION (COMPARED TO MOUNTAIN RANGES);
7. THE WESTWARD TIDAL DRAG RESULTS IN THE DEEPEST EASTERN PACIFIC BASIN, AS ISOSTASY IS OFFSET BY THE SHOVE TO THE WEST. IN ADDITION, THE SHOVE OF THE SIERRAS TO THE WEST INITIATES ROTATION OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY-SIERRA COUPLET (ROTATING CCW, LOOKING NORTHWARD), SO THAT THE VALLEY SINKS WHILE THE SIERRAS RISE;
8. South of the Equator, the tidal drag becomes of lesser importance again, and the ANDES mountains indicate that Mantle drag becomes dominant until the 40S termination of EB occurs. SUBDUCTION IS DUE TO EASTWARD MANTLE DRAG, WHEREVER THERE ARE NO HIGH MOUNTAIN RANGES, in the Northeast Pacific (AND NOT TO MANTLE PLUMES, HOTSPOTS, OR PLATE MOVEMENTS);
9. ABSENCE OF CONTINENTS AND MOUNTAIN RANGES RESULTS IN EASTWARD-JUTTING ISLAND CHAINS- SUCH AS THE WEST INDIES AND THE SHETLANDS (AS THE MANTLE, MOVING FASTER THAN CRUST, DRAGS CRUST EASTWARD). ALL OF THESE REMARKS PERTAIN TO THE NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC; THE INDIAN AND THE ATLANTIC OCEANS ARE IN ZONES OF DIFFERENT MASS DISTRIBUTION. NO CORRELATION HAS BEEN FOUND FOR THOSE REGIONS; and,
10. Dating of the movement may be made by use of the date of the Midway Islands (28 m.y. FOR 530 KM SEPARATION, OR 250 KM ALONG THE CA COAST, OR 3.8 MM/YEAR WESTWARD MOVEMENT, SINCE KT), which is about the western-most LOCATION of the shear westward, created by tidal drag. THIS IS MIOCENE time, or latest Oligocene, and corresponds to the time generally accepted by the GEOLOGY CULTURE, which initiated wide-spread vulcanism along B&R faulting.
INCIDENTALLY, THE B&R IS CREATED BY THE WESTWARD DRAG OF THE SIERRAS, AS THE MOVEMENT TO THE WEST CREATES EXTENSION OF THIS GREAT BASIN. THE WASATCH LINE IS THE FURTHEREST EAST INFLUENCE OF THE DRAG CREATED BY THE SIERRAS MOVING WESTWARD. COMPRESSION IS THE DOMINANT FEATURE IN THE COLORADO PLATEAU TO THE EAST.

IT IS EXPECTED THAT THE MARIANAS TRENCH IS RELATED TO THIS WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF THE CRUST, AND I WILL PUBLISH A SEPARATE TREATISE ON THIS SUBJECT.

IMPLICATIONS OF MANTLE DRAG-MOUNTAIN AUGMENTED CRUSTAL SLOWING (acronym: MAD-MACS)
1. Should the influence of tall mountain chains be universally pertinent for causing western movement between ocean transforms, it will have to pass the test for other basins. It occurs for the Alaskan Panhandle, but poorly for the segment west of the Baja Peninsula of Mexico (Maui to 15N transform to the south, which is moving westward from the Baja Peninsula).
Further, the coast of South America, SA, shows subduction throughout the western coast, where the Andes Mountains are tall and continuous, with the exception of the Chilean coast, where MAD-MACS SEEMS TO BE IN EFFECT. The southern Pacific- we have found -is operating under different rules, since there is a re-distribution of mass northward, and we will treat this separately.
2. The trend of the CA western-moving system is oriented NW-SE, and this could be due to the history of the region before the last POLAR AXIS CHANGE. However, the orientation of the younger HI-Emperor chain, and the spreading of N-S faulting more to the south in B&R indicates that the NW-SE orientation is young. Further, the highest mountain in the Sierras is Mt. Whitney- which is near the southern boundary of the Sierras segment. This indicates that the combination of EB and tall mountains moves to the west slower than that at the Mendocino transform, or that Coriolis rotation is dominating the presentation. The orientation of the Alaskan Panhandle is similar (to the NW), and the effect of diagonal orientation of coastline to the movement to the west must be significant. In Death Valley, DV, the convergence of faulting- at Badwater and Furnace Creek- indicates a shift to the north for the lateral faulting. The vulcanism concentration is near this point also, the termination of the GARLOCK FAULT occurs at the south, and the rotation of blocks under the influence of EASTERN DRAG BY THE MANTLE is initiated there (indicated by the vertical rotation of the Armargosa Range). The larger influence of EB, compared to the high mountains, must be the clue necessary to compare orientations of CA coast and Sierras (as far as the portrait being diagonal to the western movement of the segment).
Measuring the displacement along the Garlock Fault, it is twice the displacement along the continental shelf at Mendocino (200 vs. 100 km), and this indicates that movement along the south fault is faster than in the north. This is opposite to what would be expected for the segment being rotated to a diagonal orientation, but it does relate that the DV dynamics is more rapid, than at Mendocino. The EB terminates at Mendocino, while at DV it is greater in thickness. Altogether, the data are telling us that Coriolis rotation, CCW, for the CA cell (rising Sierras) is causing the diagonal presentation of the Sierras relative to the expected westward drag (due west).
3. It is VERY SIGNIFINCANT THAT THE SIERRAS ARE INFLUENCING THE CRUST ALL THE WAY TO MIDWAY ISLAND. This is some 5200 km separation, and indicates that the Pacific Crust is easily dragged, even though it is composed of THIN BASALT! The same result occurs for the Chilean coast. This has nothing to do with the mantle, since we are analyzing a rectangular segment of crust, the latitudinal span being the same as for the Sierras.
The orientation of the Hi-Emperor chain is not the same as that for the Sierras (115 degrees, as compared to 150 from north for the mountain chain). Complicating all this is Coriolis rotation within the CA segment, so that the chain, being on thinner crust, rotates more easily than for the CA thicker crust. Segment shape is that of a trapezoid, rather than a parallelogram. MY CONCLUSION IS THAT THE NW-SE ORIENTATON OF THE SIERRAS AND THE HAWAIIAN CHAIN IS DUE TO CORIOLIS ROTATION, AND NOT TO A HISTORICAL PRESENTATIOM OCCURRING BEFORE THE LAST POLAR AXIS CHANGE!

INTER-RELATION OF EB, CORIOLIS ROTATION, AND MOUNTAIN CHAINS SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR
There are three factors operating on the coastlines of the Pacific continents which determine whether there is Subduction (vertically-rotating N-S cells), Mantle drag to the East, or Mountain-augmented shear to the west (creating latitudinal transforms):
1. Coriolis rotations occur between the Zones 40N to 40S, except for a minimal effect between 10N and 10S. Therefore at the SA Equator, there will be no Coriolis effect noticeable. This is the location of SA where the westernmost protrusion of the continent occurs. Analysis should start here, since the complication of horizontal rotation is absent (BUT STILL PRESENT IS THE VERTICAL ROTATION CREATED BY THE DRAG OF THE UNDERLYING MANTLE, PROCEEDING EASTWARD). Notice that subduction under SA is absent from 1S northward, but continual to the south, until Chile (40S) is reached;
2. The MANTLE IS MOVING SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE CRUST (BECAUSE OF LESSER TIDAL FRICTION FROM THE MOON), and this creates an eastward drag on the base of the crust. This is the normal dynamics for the whole globe, and should occur wherever there is rotation. This eliminates the poles and parallels close to them (Antarctica has visible effect to about 70S Latitude). There should be no vertical rotation for either the Arctic or Antarctica; and,
3. The EB CONSISTS OF TWO SEPARATE ENTITIES: THAT DUE TO CENTRIFUGAL FORCE (CREATING AN EXTRA-LARGE DIAMETER OF THE EARTH FROM ABOUT 40N TO 40S, AND THAT DUE TO MOUNTAIN RANGES WITHIN THE BULGE- SUCH AS THE SIERRAS. BOTH OF THESE PROTRUSIONS SHOULD CREATE A WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF A CRUSTAL SEGMENT ALONG TRANSFORMS (WHICH ARE CREATED BY THE MOVEMENT). This may be opposed or augmented by the Coriolis movements. In SA, the rotation of the continent is generally CW, and the end result is that Coriolis is dominant, In NA, rotation is generally CCW, and the two forces do not work in concert. Mantle Drag-Mountain augmented Crustal Shear (MAD-MACS) WEST OF THE SIERRAS CAUSES WEST MOVEMENT OF SEGMENTS. Notice that the latitudinal spread of the Sierras is similar to the spacing between Midway Island and the kink in the HI-Emperor chain (5-6 degrees).

SA has subduction from near the Equator (1S) to the Chile 40S Latitude. This includes zones where all three factors of DRAG, CORIOLIS ROTATION, AND MOUNTAIN RANGE-INDUCED SHEAR OCCUR. Hence, the transforms are short- E to W- or non-existent. The combination of Coriolis and Mantle drag is dominant- overcoming any westward movements. The overall presentation of SA is such, that it is far to the east of NA, and this evidently is the reason. Transforms which are of wide westward extent appear from the EB location 32S and further south. Those north of 32S are short-lived, indicating little influence of mountain ranges. The western movement is present, but offset (and more) by the combination of Coriolis and Mantle Drag.
TO EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF CORIOLIS, VIS-VIS THE WESTWARD DRAG DUE TO MOUNTAIN RANGES, LOOK AT CENTRAL AMERICA, WHERE PART HAS LATITUDES LESS THAN 10 DEGREES N. LATITUDE (WHERE CORIOLIS ROTATION IS MINOR):

TO BE CONTINUED; SCROLL DOWN FOR INFORMATION WHICH WILL BE AUGMENTED LATER. KEEP IN MIND THAT I AM WORKING THIS OUT AS I GO ALONG, SO THAT THERE ARE ERRORS IN EARLIER PRESENTATIONS, WHICH ARE LATER CORRECTED. I HAVE HAD TO ELIMINATE MUCH INFORMATION FROM THE LITERATURE, WHICH HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE ERRONEOUS!