## Friday, December 25, 2009

### Coriolis Rotations aid in understanding EARTH PUZZLES

THE PUZZLE OF REJUVENATION IS SOLVED WITH CW ROTATION OF SHRINKING AND COOLING MAGMA, OCCURRING AFTER PRIMARY EXTRUSION HAS TERMINATED. HEAT OF FRICTION FROM BRITTLE CRUST SCRAPING AGAINST NEIGHBORING ROCK CREATES SMALL MAGMA CHAMBERS LONG AFTER INITIAL MAGMA HAS COOLED! NOTE THE SMALL VENT, NAMED WAIKAPU- WHICH IS LOCATED BY A DRAINAGE BETWEEN HALEAKALA AND VOLCANO TO THE WEST. REJUVENATION CONE COMPOSITION HAS DIFFERENT COMPONENTS AFTER INCORPORATION OF SEA WATER, REEF MATERIAL, AND WEATHERING.

Coriolis Force creates almost All Known Geology Puzzles via LOCAL AND REGIONAL Rotation of the Earth’s Crust
Coriolis Force is most easily seen when draining the bathtub. As the water exits, it spirals counter-clock-wise, CCW, north of the Equator. It is generally ignored, since the flow direction may be reversed by simply intervening and rotating one’s finger in the opposite directories- creating clockwise flow. It is seen by most people as a weak force, and it is caused by the SPIN OF THE EARTH.
At the Equator, the surface velocity (relative to an outer space position, or to the NORTH POLE) of anything on a latitude line is approximately 1000 miles per hour, mph, due to the Earth’s spin. This surface velocity becomes less for any latitude north or south of this location, relative to the earth. At the North Pole, the velocity is zero, even though the angular spin is the same- one revolution per day.
Moving northward from the Equator, the surface velocity lessens about 10 nautical miles for each degree of Latitude increase. Consequently, when a rocket is fired northward from the Equator, the surface of the Earth under it does not move as fast as it did when the rocket was fired. The result is a movement to the right as the rocket encounters higher Latitudes. This occurs even when the rocket is fired southward, since the Earth now moves faster to the left under the rocket, and the rocket doesn’t keep up- again resulting in a rightward move in the northern hemisphere. When watching weather systems (moving air), this results in a CCW rotation for low pressure cells (weather-producing, where the air is moving toward the center of the cell) and CW rotation for high-pressure cells (fair weather and sunny skies, moving outward from the pressure source).
This movement depends upon the viscosity of the system, and since air has the smallest viscosity, the weather systems move across the screen and rotate quickly- on a daily basis. The same result occurs for the earth’s Crust, except now the viscosity is much more- on the order of a 100 million times as much as for air. The movement is not noticed by observers on the Earth, since in most cases the velocity is on the order of a millimeter, mm, per year. This is about the thickness of a fingernail, and mostly can be ignored. However, for the earth and Geologic time (in millions of years), this small movement becomes significant- one kilometer per million years.
Considering that 65 million years have occurred since the Dinosaurs have been extinct, the movement of 65 km since this Cretaceous time is very noticeable. As an example, rock rotating along the great Basin and Range, B&R, lateral fault noticeable in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone (Aztec in Nevada), has moved from southern Utah to the Valley of Fire State Park in NV, during this span of time. This lateral displacement may be insignificant for Man’s lifetime scale, but important when finding that the movement of the rock has created a GEOLOGICAL ANOMALY.
These rotating cells are easily seen on the Google Earth map- as circular features creating arcuate river paths or as fossil traces on the surface of the earth. They rotate CW for sinking areas (basins or sinking ground), and CCW for rising areas (mountains, magmas, or salt domes). The rotation orientation may be noticed by looking for the drag of river banks- one side relative to the other. In the field, the rotation creates what is known as slickensides- slick silicate surfaces on rock which may shine in the sunlight (even on dark limestone). Sometimes they will exhibit striations or etched parallel lines showing the lateral movement- with claw marks showing that a pebble in the rock has dug into the opposite side to show direction of drag.
Use of this technique simplifies structural geology considerably, since with its use the fault reversal noticed near vulcanism is related to the original heating (rise) of the magma, versus the shrinking (sinking) of the cooling mass (SOMETIMES ALLOWING THE CRUST TO REVERSE ITS DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT). Other enigmas include the occurrence of rejuvenation cones on the islands of Hawaii, where two cooling volcanoes rotate similarly (Maui), creating friction and heat between them (end result- a small cone, Waikapu). These anomalies are easily found by locating circular river paths on Google Earth photos. Circular cells adjacent to an arcuate river path rotate CW on the inside of a circular path (sinking), while uplifts or hills and mountains rotate CCW (uplift) on the outside adjacent contact of a circular river path. Case studies show that most of the Anomalies not understood by Geologists can be clarified with the use of a few Coriolis Rules. These will be enumerated for cases shown further down in the Blog.
LATER TREATISES ARE MORE ACCURATE THAN EARLIER ONES, SINCE MORE CASES HAVE BEEN ANALYZED

To be continued, but many cases are shown earlier in the BLOG- SCROLL DOWN!
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Pulsing and rotating of the CRUST about the Hurricane Fault is shown in photos above and below: This is seen also for the terraces near the town of VIRGIN- PROCEEDING INTO KOLOB CANYON: This is exemplified by a DIAGRAM- which shows the movements,both vertically and horizontally, for outcrops found near the Grass Valley crater, Hurricane, Utah: