Thursday, December 3, 2009

Crimping the Crust vs. “Minding” the Mantle

Does the Mantle dominate Crustal and Surface Features?
The scanty information I have found in the literature is devoted to the notion that if there is any influence on Geologic Structure by Coriolis Rotation, it originates in the Mantle. I have modeled a case history for the Grass Valley extrusions in Washington county, Utah, where the dimensions of the rotating cell are no more than the thickness of the Crust. For this case, there is rotation of volcanoes while cooling, in a clockwise direction, and where the dip and shear of nearby outcrops may be seen to have been only slightly affected by the Mantle.

For the case above, the Crust of the Earth is near 40 km thick, and the diameter of the cell, as seen in circular river valleys, slickensides, sheared concrete slabs, and displacement of geologic features is about the same width. Consequently, I surmise that it is possible for a small spherical or cylindrical portion of the Crust to spiral on its own (except for the base, which is dragged by the Mantle). Using trigonometry for calculating the ratio of uplift/lateral drag, I find that the Mantle is moving about 1 mm/year faster than the Crust- evidently due to its smaller viscosity and further distance from TIDAL EFFECTS OF THE MOON. Although this drag is greater than the vertical movements of the cell, the other rotations are faster (5mm/year for horizontal rotation, for cooling and shrinking volcanic cells). All of these movements are significant (in the same order of Magnitude), but the horizontal component may be compared to that happening in the Atmosphere. The rotations of weather cells occur in a thickness of about 10 km, and are modified by friction with surface features, but they nevertheless occur over oceans in a predictable manner.
The next step in this analysis is to investigate the next larger Coriolis Cell Diameter, to determine whether the influence of the Mantle is only somewhat more, and to find if there is any certainty for this regional cell with diameter greater than Crustal thickness, that a cell with diameter greater than 2X Crustal thickness will behave differently than the small ones where I have a bit of confidence developed. Below are the characteristics which I have accumulated, by analyzing over a hundred of these rotating Coriolis cells:
a. Small cell diameters are associated with Hot springs, while larger cells have basaltic vulcanism, progressing to super Volcanoes (explosive) for multi-state features;
b. Shear zones are about 1/200th of the diameter of the circular feature, with 200 meters for the Grass Valley cell, and 2-3 km for the B&R cell of 400-500 km width;
c. The cell rotates about an independent linear feature which is moving to actuate the Coriolis Force, such as the Hurricane Fault. Reactionary cells are rotated by parallel thrust faults which are moving oppositely to each other, and the linear feature is external to the cell (such as the Valley of Fire, NV thrusts); and,
d. Shear is dominantly lateral, as seen by slickensides’ striations and displacement in concrete slabs. River meanders may be seen to be dragged away from the direction of movement of the cell (comparing one side of the river banks and meanders to the other).

I will have to be judicious in finding a cell of larger dimensions, since both the size and vertical protrusion are of equal importance in causing rotation. Further, the Latitude of occurrence is influential- Coriolis cells not having a significant presentation in Latitudes less than 10N or 10S. I will work within intermediate latitudes, since the termination of the Equatorial Bulge, EBT, at 40N or 40S is an added complication.

Mogollon Rim: Verde Graben to Mazatzal Mountains
After living in Cottonwood, AZ for 18 years and trekking its colorful purple mountains and dark canyons, my choice for the next Coriolis Tectonics investigation is the region about the Mogollon Rim.
Only a part of it will be analyzed for its pertinence in investigating whether the Mantle is dominating the
Structural Geology of the region. It is possible that there are two separate Coriolis cells there- on a regional scale- since the Pine Valley wilderness protrudes on the SE side of the area, as does the Mazatzal Mountains. We will leave the SE border in doubt, anticipating that it will become clear which is the most pertinent cell as the work progresses. The feature which most clearly defines a cell is a linear prominently displayed in the center- in this case the Mogollon rim. This linear is displayed NW-SE across most of AZ, and it will influence many smaller as well as larger rotations. I select the typical cell, which I have observed is further defined by the antipodal positioning of a sink or graben on the low side (Verde basin) and a monocline or compressional feature on the high side of the spiraling entity. This Verde to E. Verde River portion is most interesting from the standpoint of a regional feature because of Hackberry Mountain- a SILICEOUS extrusion of greater significance than a small basaltic vent. I have selected a category which is 2nd from the bottom of:
1. Local cells of width less than the Crustal Thickness;
2. Regional cells which have larger extrusions, such as violent rhyolitic emissions;
3. State-wide cells that have many smaller cells enclosed, which exhibit vents, geothermal areas, large features such as laccoliths, and mountains; and,
4. Continental cells (or half continents) which possess large basins, mountain ranges, and state-wide fault systems.
In addition, there is the more nebulous development of Quadransphere rotations- which enclose a quarter of the Earth’s Crust, and which enclose ocean basins as well as entire continents.
Further definition of the area to be selected demands that a violent volcano, such as Hackberry (Miocene to Pliocene volcano- a long-lasting extrusion, indicating more than a temporary heat-producing shear zone), determine the border. This border phenomenon probably forces the conclusion that Pine Mountain wilderness is the antipodal feature diagonally situated across the cell from the Verde Graben (and not the Mazatzal Mountains, which occur between two cells, and therefore is hazy as to its incipience).
The following Google Photo presents the area to be investigated better than any ground mapper could arrange (since the “Big Picture” is too large for a person working on the ground to find):
The above photo is somewhat dated, because I have determined many more facets of the development of cells, since I posted this Hackberry cell. I will get a better NEW GOOGLE PHOTO for analysis. as shown below: This area is indeed one step larger than than near the Hurricane Fault- one containing both basaltic vents (Squaw Peak, Mingus, and House Mountains) and violent rhyolitic extrusions (Hackberry). This is not to incorporate the San Francisco Peaks at Flagstaff- which is in a wider order of areal extrusions. Most of the area’s vulcanism occurred during the Miocene, and again indicates that West USA entered a time of extension, as opposed to compression during the late Mesozoic to the Eocene. The area to be modeled is on the order of 100 km, including The Mogollon Rim and the vulcanism at Bill Williams Mountain and vents along the Black Hills:

Here is the 2009 edition: ENLARGING The photo above hints that the Verde Valley graben is an ellipse, and this type of cell is one which is impinged upon by two greater entities- the San Francisco Peaks composite vulcanism and the Prescott or Cherry Batholith.

Below is my first pass, for modeling the Verde Graben, to find how it fits with the CRUSTAL OR MANTLE MOVEMENTS:
Hackberry Volcano, AZ beside the Verde and Fossil Creek
This Miocene extrusion is a rhyolitic type, and had a violent past for several million years (14.45 m.y. and Horner Mt-Thirteen Mile Rock: 3.1 to 11.3 m.y.). It showered tuffs as far as Interstate 17, some 10 miles distant, and it left several rhyolite or dacite domes within its 1-2 mile caldera- one of which is shown in the photo below:
I was inspired to jest a bit while hiking this area, and sent the following missive for April 1, 2001:
I was standing on the rim of the Hackberry caldera, invoking the god Xetrov, when I realized that my right Gortex boot was vibrating with a strange rhythm. I could feel the emanations even up to my spinal cord- there was something eerie issuing from the bowels of the Earth! I had just found that by making electrical resistivity measurements to a great depth, the earth could make communications with the Muse of my spirit Euterpe. This was by way of pulsating DC current, which I had impressed on the extrusive rocks- which had made their way all the way from the Virgin Mantle some 100's of kilometers below my tenuous location on the caldera rim.
Gingerly I trod the sharp-edged crater lip, realizing that one false move and I would have to call for the God of the Labyrinth- Ztrauq. I hesitated to invoke this particularly Deity, since this would be the ultimate test of my essence- Ztrauq only empathized with earth scientists of True Spirit, those who have been tested with the radioactive emanations and reductive brines of the deeper layers of the stratigraphic columns as far down in the earth's crust as man had made contact. Only those who have been divested of all of the materialistic urges and passion manifestations need make supplications to Ztrauq! Of course at my age, all of these false spiritual machinations had long ago been cleansed and my body was now Whole- stripped of these puny inclinations of the flesh.
I had just been informed by way of the Information Superhighway, that my perceptions had been too limited- one must look further than mere centers of labyrinth and female vortices- one must view the earth from a standpoint much larger than a cross-section of fractures and descending crotches; one must LOOK BIGGER. No longer can one think small, the earth is larger than my Colorado Plateau in its outlook. One must think of the crust as a mosaic of GRIDS. The Spirit is manifesting itself along many linears. And when one happens upon the intersection of several emanations, one has the POWER (May the FORCE be with you!) to truly understand.
Consequently, my stance on the rim of the gigantic expression of SPIRIT- the AURA surrounding the Caldera Hackberry- was tugging at my Gortex boot with a not-so-subtle suggestion; I was being directed by the God of the Underworld- that musical mantra-ejecting body far below: ELTNAM!
Being a true Scientist, Ι rapidly shifted my philosophical viewpoint to that of the Spiritualist- I must listen to the MUSINGS of the mantra of the earth. I shook my right foot, to ascertain whether the vibrations of my right foot were more than ephemeral. The Gortex remained unchanged, proving that forevermore I must encourage my foot to remain out of the bowels of thought, and to soar loftily- above the mere Winds of my immediate destiny- up to the Sulfurous Airs of the Eternal Shrouds.
Harold L. Overton April 1, 2008

To view the larger influences on the Verde Graben, I am posting below a Google photo of the entire Northern AZ.

This view shows a number of interesting features, which probably bear on the analysis of the smaller cells. Note that there are several anomalies:
a. The Colorado River is diverted from a circular path by the Grand Wash and other faults, indicating that these lateral faults are moving faster than the general shear-rotation faulting of the Coriolis cells- which have been calculated by me as being on the order of 1 mm/year;

b. The triple junction at Overton Arm of Lake Mead indicates a major anomaly in the Crust (there are several vents there), and the mapped lateral thrusts are at the intersection of Muddy, Virgin, and Overton Arm waterways;
c. The Kanab Creek fault has displaced the Colorado River by an amount similar to that of the Grand Wash, not considering the vertical displacement (I think that we can now solve the mystery of the opening to the west of the Colorado River in late Tertiary time- it evidently opened whenever the lateral shearing by the great fault systems fractured a path for the river);
d. The whole cell is rotating counterclockwise- CCW- indicating that the area is rising (which is true for the CP in general, instrumented by the GPS measuring station at Fredonia, AZ), and this is confirmed by the loss of detail and river paths on the eastern side of the cell (as opposed to the west side where the river shows the fracture pattern excellently); and,
e. The House Valley monocline (Kaibab uplift) is on a centerline for the entire feature, and apparently is arcuate on a large sale, because of a cell rotation for AZ and southern UT.
Should any of these large fault systems continue south of Flagstaff and Hiway I-40, they will impinge on the Structural Geology of the Verde Valley. The Grand Wash to Aquarius to Skull Valley system might be such an impingement.

Continuing with the Hackberry analysis: With a further xpansion: The bare Google photo above is interporeted as shown below:

More to come!

Monday, November 30, 2009

Equatorial Bulge Termination and shear at 40N or 41S Latitudes

Although the Equatorial Bulge is presumably due to the Elliptical shape of the Earth (due to centrifugal force slinging out the middle portion), the Google Earth photos and analyses show that the termination of the bulge is sharp and confined to about 1-2 degrees of Latitude. There is drastic shear developed along the 40th parallel, as evidenced by sudden changes in geography and subsurface features:
Nevertheless, at the Mendocino transform- which shears westward on the NORTH side, as seen by the shove to the west of the HI-EMPEROR SEAMOUNT chain, there is a rift near the continental slope which shears eastward until reaching the Cascade Mountains.
In the southern hemisphere, EB apparently occurs at 41S, but the error in interpretation is about 1 degree Latitude, so this can be ignored. New Zealand is sheared North from South Island at the 40S latitude- similarly to Tasmania from Australia- yielding confirmation that shear occurs in this part of the Globe.
There are few locations on land in the southern Hemisphere to check further, and the shear lines in the ocean basins are scanty for E-W transforms, in the Southern Hemisphere.
Back to North America, there is shear or displacement shown in the Appalachian Mountains (see the inflection in the SW-NE display) and at the southern edge of Long Island- both of which are along the 40N parallel:
The tentative CONCLUSION is that EB is not a gradually-changing surface (or smoothly decreasing ellipse to the north); rather it displays the characteristics of a HUMP. The Bulge must have an abrupt transition to the spherical or elliptical surface at the 40N latitude. Several geological features augment this supposition: The Yellowstone track at a locus near 40 N, and the Overthrust belt. Below is shown Turkey, which is very similar in many respects to the B&R and CP couplet just south of 40N:
The South American coast shows some influence of the shear between EB and the domain further south, mainly at portions of the east coast. In the west, the region is under extension- west of the Andes- and forms islands:
40N or 40S EB boundary shear shifts direction at Coastal or Continental Shelves
Oceanic transforms or shear lines are regular for ocean basins, except for meteoric strikes and shifting of the Polar Axis- such as for the KT disruption. Continents portray rotating Coriolis cells, and do not show lengthy linear shear zones; rather they exhibit rotations of various diameters, according to the type of feature instrumental in creating them. Regional linears, such as the Hurricane fault Hf, have regional cells of diameters smaller than the fault zone, and continental features- such as the Mississippi River New Madrid fault zone- exhibit cell diameters on the order of sizes of states.
Generally, this EBD (diminution) shear displaces geological features to the west, South of 40N latitude. This display continues into the Pacific Ocean, with the subsequent intermission of rifts and shear reversals for the shelves. This exhibits rotation of what were called Mini-Plates, which were assumed to break off from the dominant Pacific plate. This was a “nice touch”, but the terranes assumed to form by colliding with the continents were unknown as to source and incoming orientation. With the Coriolis rotation, the incipience is simple; the Mini-Plate merely rotates from the continent along the coast line. In the process, local rifts and transforms are created. This explains why there is reversal of the general shearing due to the faster movement of the Crust north of 40N. West of the local rifts, the shear is again westward north of 40N latitude, but evidently much different than that below 40N. There is one other part of the puzzle, however, and that is the gradual southward shift of the 40N transform to about 31S with approach to the HI-E seamount chain. Again, the transform is rotated gradually to the south CCW), and fits with the Coriolis theory. The question remaining is: Is this large curvature, on the order of continental size, due to Crustal movements or is the Mantle involved?

We will try to solve this problem, by looking at progressively larger cells- starting with local ones, such as the Grass Valley cell with a diameter of about 30 km. We will also attempt to discern why the Southern hemisphere presents very little to confirm the shearing of the Non-Bulge from the part near the Equator undergoing diminution. It is shown on the SA eastern coast, with breakup into islands on the west coast. This all indicates extension for Chile, below the 40S Latitude, where the Plate Tectonics theory would have only compression and subduction in that region (due to the presence of andesitic vulcanism). Altogether, it seems that upon closer inspection, the Plate Tectonics idea applies only to the deep ocean basins and that it only provides a start in understanding the movements of the Crust. Wherever there is a landmass (even islands), there is rotation induced by Coriolis Force and the subduction-wandering of continents idea does not apply.