Monday, June 23, 2014

The MAGNETO of the Earth, a developing Field created by Moving LOOPS of Electrical current. Factors in its FORMULATION are: an IRREGULAR Cycle near 200 k.y., spontaneous Electrical POTENTIALS in the Earth's Crust, moving MASSES of crustal blocks, ROTATION of Crustal segments, transfer of Electrons when large amounts of SOLUBLE Compounds change VALENCE, e.g. Fe++ to Fe+++, and PRECIPITATION of ions in salt water upon drying, e.g. Ca++So4-- to inert gypsum. Can this entity be solved with Electron shifts?

 Considering the IONIC approach first, the start is with an Iron Spring on the South Beach of Penn Cove, Whidbey Island, WA State, where it indicates an ENLARGEMENT of the Bay E-W, creating an EXTENSION along a Meridianal N-S Axis, and an OPENING for previously soluble compounds to emerge as INSOLUBLE (a chemical VALENCE change, exchanging an electron):

 COLOR CODE is as follows: red, for COMPRESSION or Rising; blue for EXTENSION or Sinking; black for FACTUAL Information; Pink for scenarios; yellow for location or OUTCROPS; green for measurement, and white for N-S linears.
The CYCLE for this event may be found from the creation of the small Bay, and it is CALCULATED with Arc DISTANCE x 360/arc angle subtended x pi divided by the Trigonometric rate for the direction of the movement of the Bay- which in this case is South at 16.24 millimeters yearly:

 Above shows the COORDINATES, and below is the Bay to the east, for Long Point, which is west of Snakelum Point:
The CLUE to the world-wide GENERALITY of this small event, is the exhibit of a "HOLE" (below) associated with a N-S SLICE (which indicates the EXTENSION E-W for the Bay, or an enlargement of the circular feature). This is noticed for the most obvious CASE of Hudson Bay (the HOLE), with its SLICE of James Bay to the south. In this case of Iron Springs, the slice is to the north, and Hudson Bay is seen on photo 20, scrolling down:
CALCULATIONS for the Time Interval, which should be the AGE in this case, yield 47.666 k.y., and this is at VARIANCE with that for the Beach ARC. AGE of formation of Penn Cove is 792.6 k.y. from a FOCUS at 27.711 km to the North:
Indicated FOCUS occurs near Mt. Erie, and considering the large ERROR with the small angle subtended, I'll use 800 k.y. for the PROBABLE Time Interval. This is 8 cycles of the Ellipticity cycles of Milankovitch. This MERIDIAN has many ANOMALIES along the north path.

Cranberry Lake has a N-S linear Beach line, alongside the Iron Springs Meridian in White:

South end, at Iron Springs:

The MOON and Pluto (with Inclination Angle of 17.141 degrees), have combined to form the 1950 meter Linear BEACH, N-S, parallel to the Iron Springs Meridian ( 111.111 x17.141= 1904):

What does the 122.662W Meridian disclose? It is (180- 123.662d)/123.662 ratio= 1/2.195, close to the Moon/Sun ratio of 2.16, and near the Ratio of N/Uranus Inclination angle= 1.77006/.77298= 2.2899, but this Planetary Inclination Angle ratio has a difference of 4.3%, and bordering on my decision to DISCARD. Looking for an ANGLE of 2.195, or its RECIPROCAL yields .45558 degrees, which seems to apply ONLY to the Moon/Sun ratio! One other possibility is affiliated with a HYPERBOLA, where the angle pertains to a hyperbolic Function. We'll retain this, since the N-S Meridian may relate to a DIVIDER of hyperbolas!
Notice the 122.662N Meridian DIVIDER below, off the beach near a  sheared Road Collapse:
Road COLLAPSE occurred at Scenic Drive, Oak Harbor, WA, beside the Iron Springs meridian, above, and the Meridian continues near the center of an arc at Great Bear Lake, below:

Green LINE below is the same Meridian as above, leading to Iron Springs, Penn Cove, and may have some INFLUENCE on the Mima Mounds below at Eugene, Oregon:

Assuming that the San Francisco COAST-OUT is an indicator of an ANOMALY to Mercury's Inclination to the Ecliptic 7.0056d Latitude shift, view the Hyperbola (faint) found at 37.84558N (SF) + 7.0056N= 44.85118N:

I don't give the hyperbola much CREDENCE, but it will be saved for future REFERENCE.

Also to Mt. Erie:

Iron Springs from San Francisco, CA, offshore:

Light Blue ARCS are perturbations of the Continental SHELF, and they show that there is a small separation from the Iron Springs meridian:

Return to Penn Cove for the ERROR shown (exhibiting slight shaky hand movements).

Above error gives an indication as to the lateral distance one can SEARCH for any associated ANOMALY (associated with the Iron Springs Meridian). It is 820 meters, due to measurement technique:

The 122.66W Meridian cuts through the cliffs on the north side of Penn Cove, near the Monroe Landing Road:

Just a Song at Twilite

Once in the dear dead days beyond recall,
When on the world the mists began to fall,
Out of the dreams that rose in happy throng
Low to our hearts Love sang an old sweet song;
And in the dusk where fell the firelight gleam,
Softly it wove itself into our dream. 

Just a song a twilight, when the lights are low,
And the flick'ring shadows softly come and go,
Tho' the heart be weary, sad the day and long,
Still to us at twilight comes Love's old song,
comes Love's old sweet song.

Even today we hear Love's song of yore,
Deep in our hearts it dwells forevermore.
Footsteps may falter, weary grow the way,
Still we can hear it at the close of day.

So till the end, when life's dim shadows fall,
Love will be found the sweetest song of all.
Just a song a twilight, when the lights are low,
And the flick'ring shadows softly come and go,
Tho' the heart be weary, sad the day and long,
Still to us at twilight comes Love's old song,
comes Love's old sweet song. 

J. L. Malloy, Clifton Bingham

The Meridian cuts near Kloochman ROCK, which has CLEAVAGES and slices oriented N-S, so that I may have a small longitude measurement ERROR, from the position of Iron Springs:
ENLARGED, to show N-S Fractures:

Fascinating, but REALITY; the Meridianal SHEAR has split this house-sized BOULDER, since it is too heavy to be shifted by STORMS. It can only be UNDERMINED, or be split, as is shown!
Hudson Bay, with James Bay, is presented ORTHOGONALLY for SIMILARITIES, regardless of SCALE:

The tentative CONCLUSIONS are:
1. A cycle of 800,000 years releases SOLUBLE IRON and electrons to the salt water of Puget Sound, and this DECREASES the conductivity of the Crust. This MIGHT show up in the reduced Spontaneous Potential, SP, of the Earth- which are continually measured in Oil Well logging, and I will dig these out from my FILES for the Powder River Basin, ANALYSIS of 40 years ago. This release is young, NOT the 800 k.y. shown, and the LIKELIHOOD is that the release is only for a few thousand years. In the INTERVENING TIME, ICE has been continually transferred, yielding dilution or concentration of the SALINITY of the waters!
2. EVAPORATION, Dilution, Concentration, and ION Transfer work on a Temperature SENSITIVITY, and this depends mainly on the SUN!
3. We are back to Irregular Sun CYCLES, and not the TILT Precession shown in a previous Blog submission. This will depend upon Solar Flares, and ejection of plasma, so that we must return to the IONIC, or charged particles' ENVIRONMENT!

POWDER RIVER BASIN yields hydrocarbons from Cretaceous sedimentary Rock, and I have mapped the Mowery Shale and previous Muddy Sandstone over the entire county, wherever wells provided the SP, Spontaneous Potential. This indicator yields information about the variation of SP from its dependance upon the drilling fluid salinity (usually near 20 to 40 mv), to that found near 100 millivolts, mv, some 5 x normal for the basin.

The 5x MULTIPLE "shows up" for the cycles of the Powder River, meaning ONLY that I am on the right track! These cycles are greater than 600 k.y. each, indicating that they are LONGER than the Magnetic REVERSAL cycles. They appear to be more REGULAR also! I am influenced by the N-S linear of the Powder River, which so far pertains to the Moon line. I will search for  features which scribe an E-W line:

The E-W line, on a LATITUDE Parallel, has 3 indicated drainage cycles, of 800 k.y. each. I'll have to search the Literature for information on Terrestrial Currents, called Dynamic Potentials, or Kinetic, in the Profession.

 Electro-kinetic POTENTIALS, Ek, occur when there is fluid flow through capillaries, or alongside clay SURFACES, which creates CHARGE. This is sensitive to the ionic content of the fluid, and fresher water (low salinity) is a FACTOR! Powder river basin is in a dryer area, and the Ek Potentials are MAXIMUM, compared to those in the Gulf Cast, where the humidity is high. I have analyzed LOGS in both areas (thousands), and find that Ek is rare in the Gulf Coast!
 Selecting the Sahara Desert, Africa, should allow an excellent comparison for ARIDITY:

Starting with the Kamil crater, which is a well-preserved FEATURE- that may be seen to represent the standard CIRCULAR portion, with sufficient time to develop an Eastern  PRECESSIONAL later entity, and a "TIT" to the south of the 2 older units:

Kamil, being in the DRYEST DESERT, is well-preserved, and considered to be a few thousand years of AGE; my calculations, considering the USUAL Figure 8 (including the Precessional feature to east of the Axial crater) are near 1 m.y.! Mounds to the north (Sun is making the Shadows) indicate other LOCAL GRAVITATIONAL UPLIFTS, by Orbital Inclinations above the Ecliptic Plane! This is an opportunity to determine whether the Milankovitch cycles are correct for Rapidly moving features:

Using Kamil as a REFERENCE, proceed to the larger DESERT:

The HYPERBOLA (in RED) gives added CREDENCE that the Kamil Feature is an OUTER SPACE strike; the angle of STRIKE must have been at a LOW ANGLE! This finding may determine another way of appraising these CRATERS.

DESSICATION is at work in the desert, and we must find a feature which indicates a 400 to 800 k.y. IRREGULAR Cycle; this will be at an odd ANGLE, as is the HYPERBOLA. Since meteor STRIKES are as yet UNPREDICTABLE, this may be a clue to the Magnetic REVERSAL (yielding SHOCK, Magnetic interruption if METALLIC, and further DESSICATION)!

Above ENLARGEMENT of area indicates that there are several HYPERBOLAS of varying AGE, and this is encouragement to proceed.  This Sahara REGION is RISING, becoming more dessicated (losing water); this would increase the concentration of dissolved ions, as the water disappears! This should ACCENTUATE the ionic importance for the Magnetic change with time.

Above has a CALCULATED AGE of 32.85 m.y., which "fits" the Binary Theorem, BT, at 32 m.y. These features are interesting, BUT do NOT increase understanding of the Dessication CYCLE!

There has to be a SIGNIFICANT Deposition of previously IONIC compounds, to affect the Electron BALANCE of the Earth, e.g. Limestone or Gypsum, which DO occur in LARGE AMOUNTS in the dessicated BASINS!
This shifts the argument to that of LIMESTONE CYCLES- which usually have a Lengthy TIME Interval, e.g. the Paleozoic after the Cambrian until the end of the Permian, and the Cretaceous (after which the Carbonates are mainly in Lakes, such as Verde Valley in the Pliocene to Pleistocene). Increase of limestone requires that the Atmospheric CO2 be incorporated with Ca++ from the subsurface, to form CaCO3. Scanning this now-eroding Valley:

LOCALIZING at the Confluence of Oak Creek, with the Verde River, yields a 1.52 ratio. This RATIO I have calculated many times, and it will be searched, to find whether it is RELATED to a Moon, Sun combination; 5.145 degree Inclination x 1.52= 7.835, and this will be searched (the features close to this angle are Mercury, with 7.01 degrees, and Pl/Saturn at 6.872, both with 10% variation from 7.835):
House Mountain, of Miocene AGE preceded the Verde Limestone:

Another way to evaluate DESSICATION is via Ocean SALINITY; when it increases, the DISSOLVED salt in the Earth decreases, and vice-versa. This is NOT DIRECTLY RELATED to conductive ion content, but can be estimated from such! Below are Temperature measurements made versus TIME:

Above shows the LONG TERM; these are approximately 24 m.y. CYCLES!
HOLOCENE (to 15.625 k.y.):

Salinity, Temperature indications, by LATITUDE:
6 years VARIATION of Salinity:
SALINITY to Mesozoic, PC:
Oxygen ISOTOPE Climate variation; assuming the k.y. index is WRONG (should be years, for Ice Cores), there are 7,000 year CYCLES:
Calcification RATE, for the Great Barrier Reef, should increase as the Ca++ ion is available:
And finally, a theoretical GRAPH of Temperature influence on SALINITY (which is mainly Na+Cl-). This indicates the lowering of the FREEZING Temperaure, with Increase of Salt CONTENT:
This will take some CORRELATION Estimations, but it will give insight into the influence of IONIC TRANSFER (NOT Ironic) from the Crust to the Oceans!

FACTORS to consider for the INFLUENCE of IONS on Magnetic CYCLES:
1. For the ICE AGE, sea level was lowered, and the SALINITY of sea water was concentrated via the water being tied up in ice; this causes subsurface water, and its contents, to move into the ocean by OSMOTIC FORCE. Water moves from the Subsurface to the more concentrated region, by BOTH pressure head and Osmosis (in the Pleistocene 2 m.y. and less);
2. For the Pliocene, from 2 to 5 m.y., the Time of the Verde Formation, There was an increase of acidic waters from the PREVIOUS Miocene Volcanic EXTRUSIONS. These dissolved the Paleozoic limestones, and moved the Ca++CO3-- to the Verde Valley;
3. Th Miocene is the maximum AGE to be investigated, since this is SUFFICIENT for the 32 m.y. Time INTERVAL of several Magnetic REVERSALS (at least 40)!

We will search for changes in SALINITY, which are sufficient to create REVERSALS in both DIRECTION and CYCLICITY!
Verde Valley has several Volcanic PLUGS, and Craters- all of which have added ACIDITY to the Drainage which will dissolve Ca++CO3--, carrying it to the Valley; this is shown for the Hyperbola FIGURE formed in Verde Valley:

I will check to find whether any other Extrusions have formed a Hyperbola (in addition to those from Meteor Craters):

Volcanic Crayers, Plugs, and Peaks show emission locations for ACID waters, which will dissolve limestone and dolomite (CaCO3 + HCl goes to Ca++, bicarbonate):
Solving the AGE by the POLYGON:
EXOTIC Compounds, such as As, arsenic, and Flouride, are found in Camp Verde wells:
Above photo indicates that the Earth's CRUST is releasing its ACIDIC and minor elements, yielding RAPID change of the CONDUCTIVITY of the SUBSURFACE! This reduces the Magnetic FIELD, where the Loop Currents have increased RESISTIVITY, and which yield higher Ek!

Measuring the DISTANCE between volcanoes (which is a measure of Time, when the trigonometric Rotation Rate is used as a divisor)/10.24 to the east, or 30.72 when to the SW= Separation Time or TIME INTERVAL:

Above CALCULATIONS fit the irregular Magnetic Polarity REDUCTIONS, being of the right Magnitudes (near 800 k.y.), and with similar Variable Time INTERVALS, when the BELCH of Acidic fumes and waters resilt in DECREASING Crustal Conductivity! This would fit with the decrease of Earth CURRENTS, in order to decrease the Magnetic FIELD. Yet to find is the impetus to REVERSE the Polarity!

Searching for Fault REVERSALS nearby:
The road to Perkinsville from Jerome is a wimding Gravel, and the Tapeats ss. lies to the west of it. Above appears to be sandstone, compared to grey Paleozoic limestones nearby, but without a digital photo, I can't be sure! Below shows a larger view, but does NOT encompass the above anomaly, within the reversing ARCS:
Within a mile is another CANDIDATE, showing DISPLACEMENT of a sandstone UP to the West, which is what I remember from 25 years prior:

The CLUE to Magnetic cycle's REVERSAL is the almost-RANDOM extrusion process. We will find the IMPETUS of the ejection of LAVA and Ion-filled FLUIDS via this channel from the Top of the Mantle. The Crust opens with the SPLIT, across the HOLE, which is determined by the EXPANSION of the Crust as EXTENSION opens the subsurface, with as yet an UNKNOWN Time INTERVAL (possibly with the same impetus as the Iron Springs of Penn Cove, on a MUCH SMALLER SCALE!).

W. Ranney, in a 1988 M.S. Thesis, measured AGES of House Mountain of 13.2 to 14.6 m.y. (Miocene), and observed that the Rim had "walked" from its previous position where it was ABUTTED against the Basalt. This can be used to find the MOVEMENT RATE by measuring the present SEPARATION and dividing by the youngest basalt AGE:

The RATE of 8.8 mm/thousand years is hardly noticed by those nearby. I have climbed the Turkey Tank trail many times, and find that the "GAP" is sheer on the side next to the rim, and gradual on the south side! This indicates that the soft sides of the Rim are NOT ERODING as much as the Tertiary on the Verde River side. The REDBEDS are much older, but are nevertheless soft sandstones (harder than those away from the Verde River). There are Miocene GRAVELS ABUTTING the redbeds along the trail from Village of Oak Creek, VOC, with metamorphosed intrusives in the trail! Looks like Granite, but it reveals that the Extrusion PROCESS has hardened and Compressed the Wall contents of the Magma CONDUIT.

Scenes to the North and NE:
Valley above is the space "walked" by the Mogollon Rim, since the 13.2 million year EXTRUSION.

The Mogollon Rim is a LARGE ARC, eroded from the original smooth trace, which ROTATES both Laterally and VERTICALLY (sufficiently to reach the Mantle, which is approximately 50 km in DEPTH), thereby opening the Crust to allow the normal Temperature at that depth to move the MOLTEN LAVA upward, by buoyancy! This allows a CALCULATION of the RATIO of Lateral/Vertical DIAMETERS:

Above PHOTO allows a check on the INTERVAL TIME; it is 7.378 m.y. for OPENING of the Verde Valley, which has this AGE for this part of the Mogollon Rim. The RADIUS of CURVATURE is 51 km, and this is SUFFICIENT to reach the Top of the Mantle if the Lateral shift/Vertical depth ratio= 1! 
FAULTING from visual sightings (in red), while Hiking, is shown below. This is CW, rotating around Woodchute and Mingus (upon sinking in the Pleistocene):

REVERSAL of the Magnetic field will be related to a reversal of direction of the Volcanic Extrusions, and this requires use of Venus or Uranus- which are RETROGRADE! 
Reversals I have hiked (but NOT photoed, since I had NO digital camera in those days) include the one north of the Jerome gravel roadway, which has the Cambriam Tapeets over-riding itself. This is shown related to the REVERSAL of Woodchute Mountain, where the Tapeets sandstone outcrops west of the roadway, shown below:

FAULT REVERSAL, for Tapeats sandstone:

The ONLY way to distinguish Fault REVERSAL from Reverse FAULTING is to measure the movements of beds in 2 opposite Directions; this requires 3 sets of strata, to obtain a COMPARISON. Below, the middle layer has moved to the right- relative to the UPPER; both have moved to the left, relative to the LOWER (there is a "scraping" of the lower shown at the left, above the lower):

Uranus and Jupiter are indicated by the DIVIDER of the 2 ARCS which locate the REVERSAL (3 photos up). I have found another Extrusive reversal at Wilson Mountain on the north side of Sedona, and must determine whether all volcanoes experience reversal, when they cool sufficiently to rotate CW when SPIRALING downward (sinking):

Uranus is not only RETROGRADE (rotating CW, opposite to most Planets, with CCW rotation), but "rolling on its side!":

Wilson Mtn, North of Sedona:

ANOMALIES are found whenever there occur SLICES (unusual straight FRACTURES), above, or erosional SADDLES. Use the RULE: "for every saddle, there is a fault of some kind!" This gives insight for the location of Water DRAINAGES along sheared crust.

Venus is ANOMALOUS, with its RETROGRADE rotation, CW, and with its having NO BULGE or Moons:

It is an INNER PLANET, near the SIZE of Earth:

Venus is identified by the 1.62 ratio (Earth/Venus days/year), and this is shown for the Atlantic Ocean, where the disturbed area near the Mid Atlantic Ridge, MAR, is cut by a Meridian (shown in red and white):

Again, we are dealing with Vulcanism, as occurs along the MAR, with as yet an unknown frequency!
Above, the undulating SHEARING Transforms (NOT quite along Parallels) are shown for the Equator, where the INFLUENCE of both Moon and Sun is MAXIMUM. This allows the Moon/Sun ratio to be re-evaluated! It is 59/29= 2.034, or 59, along E-W Transforms/23, between Major Transforms= 2.565. I leave it to the reader to REFINE by Magnifying the view, and by measuring more accurately. The transforms result from 41 m.y. or less time interval CYCLES, so that they still should portray regular progressions, and NOT IRREGULAR occurrences! The average of the 2 CALCULATIONS is (2.034 + 2.565)/2= 2.3 (compared to 2.16 expected)! Let's re-do it:

AGAIN, notice that there are many TRANSFORMS which have separations less than 200 km. This is near the Equator, and the TIME INTERVAL of 230 m.y. is unknown as for accuracy. The Appalachian OROGENY of 256 m.y. can be used as a comparison:

The SLANT of the Transforms introduces UNCERTAINTY, and the Regional Time Intervals are 16 m.y., for a fourth of the 7.2 degree Sun Segment in the Pacific Ocean (average case studies yield 80.13 m.y. cycles); this relates that the Sun INFLUENCE is Irregular!

The Magnetic CYCLE of the Earth can be accounted for by with Volcanic EXTRUSIONS, where water, vapor, and conductive COMPOUNDS are moved to the surface of the Earth, and the Electrical CURRENT in the subsurface (producing the Magnetic Field) is reduced. The CONDUCTIVITY of the subsurface can be REDUCED with this transfer! The TIME INTERVAL of the belching Volcanoes is VARIABLE (the Cycle is IRREGULAR or UNKNOWN), and has yet to be determined. Reversal of Polarity requires another INTERVENTION, and is PROBABLY related to the RETROGRADE (backwards CW Rotation, reverse to other Solar System Planets) behavior of Uranus or Venus:

Although Venus is smaller than Jupiter, it is closer, and the relation: force  of attraction is proportional to Mass/separation distance squared, means that Venus influences Earth more than Jupiter (which has 2.5 x the mass of all other planets COMBINED)! Venus can be INVOKED whenever entities on Earth move in a REVERSE MANNER to normal. This is the case with SUBDUCTION, Fault reversal, and the eastward movements (such as the east coast of Florida "TIT", and the Gulf Stream):

1. The Crust of the Earth undergoes decreased CONDUCTIVITY, when Vulcanism emits Acidic Fluids of Conductive IONS;
2. Acidic waters dissolve Limestones with HCl, and Gypsum with H2SO4, creating briney lakes at the expense of SUBSURFACE WATERS;
3. These re-deposit the older Evaporites in younger lakes, such as Camp Verde Salt layers and Gypsiferous beds along the Verde River;
4. After the ACIDS are spent, and lakes become NEUTRAL in pH, the counter-rotation of older Volcanic Plugs and Mounds cause SINKING and subsequent re-injection of Conductive waters into the Crust, REVERSING the CYCLE to cause the MAGNETIC POLARITY to reverse, and,
5. The cycle depends upon the RAPIDITY of erosion, neutralization of acidity, deposition of evaporites, and length of TIME for the Volcanic EMISSIONS!

BEWARE the Ideas of Mark!
 An old acquaintance of mine- Mark Lichtenstein- an EVAPORITIC GEOLOGIST, was obsessed with the notion that he could discern properties of ROCKS with the SALIVA TEST. He would orient himself toward PRECIPITATES of  all kinds- limestones, gypsums, rock salt (halite), tufa, nahcolite, trona, sylvite, and Epsom salts, among others. Using his lick methodology, he professed to be able to identify the history of the EARTH.
 Sure enough, he moved to the great southwestern USA- where he was surrounded by ALKALI- the ultimate of dryness. You could see him daily, with his hatband encrusted with the sweat of his brow, swinging his pick into evaporates and pseudomorphs- hoping to add yet another strain to his repertoire of saline subtleties. 
Yelling with enthusiasm, he announced bitterness, fishy, sweetness, brackish, sanguine, bilious, tequila, quinine, and licorice as the most obvious (among many others with more subtlety, such as juniper, cinchona, muscatel, and POLECAT).
 His intrepid blue jeans were always white to dull grey, especially at the knee caps, due to prayer-like kneeling before the throne of EVAPORATION! He announced to all who would listen, that the cycles of GEOLOGY could be understood with a few SLOBBERS over CRYSTALS. Wet spells were succeeded by belching of VOLCANOES- which introduced sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium into the BASINS of the Earth. All GEOLOGIC TIME consisted of increasing ARIDITY. 
 His epitaph, composed by his wife Lot’te, restates his contribution:

 Here lies Mark- a great BELIEVER
 In salty tales (by a daily weaver);
He convinced the Source- ‘ol Sol, the Sun
 His BONES are dried, and he has WON!

Mark passed on, after a brief BOUT with LIP CANCER
                                                                       Harold L. Overton