First, look at the most famous RED SEA "Triple Junction", a meeting of three anomalies, as shown by waterways and field work on the faulting continuing to the Dead Sea. The photo above shows how geothermal emissions (Suez), orientation of waterways, and faulting (or massive fracturing) are connected. These are easily seen on sea bottoms, using acoustic sounding, but are difficult for continents- requiring considerable field work. Now we find that the analysis is simpler by analyzing Coriolis Rotation, viewing the small triple Junction below- which has all the anomalies, without requiring analysis of tremendously large features.
Information about the intersection of three features, such as occurs with the Horn of Africa and the Aleutian Islands Spiral, may be ferreted from the small triple junction that is located at the confluence of the Muddy and Virgin rivers and the Overton Arm, NV- just north of Lake Mead. Below and above are shown the rare instance where two major thrusts (which have been mapped by USGS) cause a rotation of the Crust between their linear presentations, and which have anomalies associated with them:
Above photo shows the outcrop of a part of the circularly-displayed basalt near the abandoned town of St. James, NV.
This has been analyzed by myself during Spring, 09, and I will do additional field work, to photograph the anomalies during Fall 09.
Below is a simpler analysis, incorporating new understanding I have amassed by looking at similar features from the whole Google Earth during the last 6 months:
Above photo near the Valley of Fire Park was made during Spring 09- notice the contrast between the red Mesozoic and the grey Paleozoic rocks.
This is an extremely complicated area, with several regional thrusts, and the Valley of Fire State Park to the west. Notice below that there are several rotations, caused by the oppositely-acting thrusts dragging the Crust between the moving linear thrust faults:
This entire region is a part of a larger movement- the rotation CW of most of the state of NV and part of UT- from the Wasatch Line to the border of CA- to produce the Great Basin and its down-dropping sink and depression. The region is dropping about 1 mm/year- offsetting the rise of the other part of the couplet, the CP, which is measured at the Fredonia GPS station as rising about 1 mm/year. We will spend the 09 season analyzing this couplet, and its various anomalies. This will include the PVM, Pine valley Mountains- which is a Miocene (21 m.y. age) laccolith which has uplifted along the edge of the B&R cell (note the NE-SW orientation along the cell boundary- an anomalous orientation), and the Virgin River path- which is mostly a great fracture and sometimes a faulted part of the rotating boundary rocks (field work has shown the definitely-related part near the Hurricane Fault east of Hurricane town).
We will study the region from the Hurricane Fault, Hf, to the Overton Triple Junction, with a view of determnining whether the whole southern part of the B&R region is moving toward the west and SW- toward the great thrust faults seen in the above photos.
I have tentatively found that part of the Virgin River lies over a rotating cell boundary- forming the fractures and lateral faulting which have been accentuated by drainage of water from the Colorado Plateau, CP (near Hurricane to Virgin towns' proximity). We will see if there is more evidence to support this, via slickensides on the canyon walls or drag on the surrounding Crust- such as the Beaver Dam Mtns. and protrusions between St. George, UT and Mesquite, NV.
Notice that the Beaver Dam Mountains drainages form a semi-circle, which terminates at the Virgin River on the south. This fits with the finding that a rotating Coriolis cell forms a monocline on its advancing edge (due to the Coriolis force acting on the thicker column of mass preceding the lower elevation valley to the west- the direction in which it is moving). Further, on the opposite side of the larger cell there should be a syncline or graben (in north UT or NV), and we will investigate this later. For now, the important feature is the regular drainage curvature on the west side of Beaver Dam mountains. This is truncated by the edge of the B&R cell boundary at the Virgin River. We will do field work on this feature, which is hinting that B&R anomalies are the result of rotation of the Great Basin.
Notice for the SE portion of PVM, there is a reactionary cell (actually several), which, if correctly appraised, rotates oppositely to that of the larger movement of PVM. The mountain crest has shifted south (to the west of the NE portion)because of the rotation of this cell, and the entire cell is rotating CW. This would be reverse to that expected for PVM, since it should rotate CW towards the Valley of Fire. Hence, either I am wrong, or there are other intermediary cells which buffer this one. This requires study of the Leeds cell to the SE of the one shown. Keep in mind, that I am trying to find the direction of the largest movement in this area- for PVM, to either prove or discount that this is the SE corner of the B&R cell which covers NV and part of UT and which rotates CW for the whole tri-state area (including part of the Strip in AZ).
Below photo shows a photo with one scenario for meshing the Hurricane fault, the Pine Valley, and the smaller cell's rotation- all moving CW (except for CP, which rotates CCW, as shown by the slickensides east of Laverkin), so that there is no shear on the SE edge of PVM to produce hot springs or new vulcanism:
Diagrammaticaly, this can more easily be recognized, below:
Even with the knowledge that there is rotation about protruding masses, which simplifies Structural Geology, there is the complication that separate Coriolis cells rotate around each separate feature which has a greater elevation than its neighbors. Look at the following, and determine whether the large mass to the south of the Virgin river is an extrusion- in which case, vulcanism indicates counter-rotation, because of the excess heat (it now appears that local basaltic cones are derived from shear and heat at the border of conflicting cells).
Actually, there are young volcanoes nearby- one just south of Toquerville, and one more south of Leeds, so that we will have to incorporate these into the regional pattern- to see whether they are part of the great rotation along the 1-15 freeway (producing shear and HEAT)- which is our reference line for the boundary for PVM movements in response to the greater circular movement of B&R.
OUR TASK FOR 09 WILL BE MADE EASIER NOW, SINCE THE B&R ROTATION OCCURS MAINLY ALONG THE FREEWAY, WHERE THE ENGINEERS HAVE FOUND THE BEST PLACE TO BUILD A ROADWAY- RIGHT IN THE GOUGE ZONE OF THE GREAT MOVEMENTS OF THE SW! WATCH AS YOU DRIVE ALONG, TO FIND EVIDENCE FOR THE MOVEMENT- SUCH AS SLICKENSIDES, CRACKS ALONG THE ROADWAY (LONGITUDINALY), AND GOUGE ZONES.
TO BE CONTINUED
Now we have a choice, since there are various movements of the Crust shown in the above Google Earth photo:
1. A circular pattern is shown about the Meadow Valley Mountins, NV which have a centerline pointing toward the Triple Junction (I have found that cells generally have a linear feature- which is active, or moving independantly- causing a secondary rotation about the whole entity);
2. Smaller patterns exist along the shear valley shown near the Overton Arm; and
3. The rotation boundary for the general area seems to be nearer the Virgin Mountains, rather than the Virgin River. FIELD WORK IS NOW REQUIRED!
Enlarging the previous photo, we find that the Shivwits Plateau has rotated, creating a shift of the trend of the shear valley- causing it to orient more toward the Pine Valley Mountains. The dominant activity should be the B&R rotation, with the smaller movements reacting to this greater and slower rotation. Possibly there is Volcanic or Geothermal activity within the boundaries of this cell, which has superimposed itself subsequently on the edge of the larger movement. We will check this in the field, for basaltic emissions or hot springs.
To find how this fits with my analyses of the
"Big Picture" of the western part of the Colorado Plateau, we will analyze the broad features of the region surrounding the STRIP- which is the region north of the Grand Canyon.
EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE ROTATING CORIOLIS CELL ABOUT A VOLCANIC EXTRUSION, to be used as a reference for other more complicated cells- such as protrusions of mountain blocks:
First, the rotation of a Coriolis cell formed by rising magma chambers, is demonstrated above for the Mogollon Rim- which passes north of Sedona (making Oak Creek Canyon- a famous artists' enticement), AZ and which I hiked and analyzed for 18 years while living in Cottonwood, nearby. NOTICE the presentation toward the NW, so that the maximum length can be shown. The Rim is generally a NW-SE linear scarp, but surrounding the Hackberry and other volcanoes from Miocene age, it has trifurcated and rotated to produce discontinuities in the scarp near the several previous volcanoes. These are noticed in the above Google photo, and experiments should now be performed to ascertain the rotation rate- which should now be CW with cooling of the magma chamber (the only hot springs in the area are near the Verde River, south of Fossil Creek- just the position which would be expected for shear and fracture-formation of boundary rocks, through which the river erosion and drainage proceeds). The rotation may be measured by use of slickensides angle of portrayal, or by movement rate of fractures in concrete slabs, or by use of drag movements along river valleys.
Here are other Google photos of the OVERTON ARM area, which might be helpful in analyzing this region- which is critical for understanding the movement of the B&R in this NV-UT location:
To simplify the field work, I have made my analysis to be able to find the pertinent features in the Overton Arm area. Notice the abundance of circular features, including more arcuate dikes in the below photo (the abundance should convince even the Geology Culture to consider the possibility of Coriolis rotation):
The thrust, as noticed by the Mesozoic Red Rocks is a broad feature of several miles extent (showing the movement of a wide swath of sedimentary rocks from the east).
Notice that there is rotation of the Mesozoic, even while it is being thrust to the west, relative to the older and higher-in-elevation Paleozoic. There does appear to be fragments of Mz mixed with the Paleozoic rocks to the south.
Below is my interpretation of the various movements surrounding the Overton Arm thrusting:
Below is the expanded view of the area we will start out to investigate, Fall 09:
We will try to confirm the various Geological feastures, shown on the above photo, and to appraise the more general rotation of protruding masses- such as with the Monzonite fragments.
Since the TRIPLE JUNCTION OF THE MUDDY, OVERTON ARM, AND THE VIRGIN RIVERS FORM a VORTEX- of sorts- this true story should appeal to the NEW AGE CULTURE:
When I lived in the Verde Valley, Just 20 miles from the practitioners who ENERGIZE THE SPIRIT WITH QUARTZ CRYSTALS AND BY SITTING ON THE SOURCE OF UPWARD -MOVING ENERGY FROM THE EARTH, I welcomed the chance of becoming intimate with this re-vitalizing of the Psyche. One day, while reconnoitering a planned hike in the RED ROCKS of Sedona uplands, I “got my chance“. I would regularly visit each location, to get the layout for parking, hiking, and access. On this particular Fall day, I visited an area above the famous tennis courts at THE ENCHANTMENT, on a terrace of Permian sandstone. Someone in a pink jeep had beat me there, and the fellow was alone- laying out the accoutrements for the gathering to follow.
When I saw that he was associated with the New Age, I jumped at the opportunity to learn more about this Cult. He was arranging assorted jade and turquoise objects, coins, and a circular pattern of red rocks around a central fracture in the stone- which I discerned was a “VORTEX”. He was not taciturn, and I encouraged him to talk about the practice- which was his livelihood, as well as his philosophical love.
He informed me that he was bringing a group to this spot that afternoon, for the purpose of energizing them with the spirits emerging from the earth. I expressed admiration for his ability to introduce middle-aged women to a spot which would give them vitality once more. He brightened with this confidence, and told me more about the practice. I then told him that I was a field worker in EARTH SCIENCE, and that I was aware of the focusing of energy at this intersection of large fractures in the rock. In fact, I told him “Where there are two vertical fractures in the earth, there is a line of intersection at the junction of the two vertical planes- which acts similarly to a vertical pipe“. This pipe behaves as any other channel- allowing vapors to rise because of their light weight. "In addition, there are radioactive compounds known to concentrate in the Colorado plateau and they yield Radium- which give off Radon gas by radioactive emission. Sitting on this locus of two vertical fractures allows the recumbent one to receive RADON GAS RIGHT UP THE REAR END”
At this point, the pink jeep aficionado jumped in his jeep, and without a word, sped off into the blue.
Now we see that at the triple junction of the three NV waterways, there is a true NATURAL VORTEX, about which the rocks are circling. A glance at Google Earth will show the encircling RED ROCKS CREATING AN ARC ABOUT THE OLDER GREY ROCKS, and this occurs due to two thrusts forcing the surrounding sedimentary rocks to rotate around the center of this convergence. See www.Google.earth.com for a free view of the earth and its geography from space (ALSO BELOW). This is named a TRIPLE JUNCTION by geologists, and one which is large enough to rotate the surrounding crust (in an obvious manner) of the earth is rare. The one which is more well-known is that at the conjunction of the Red Sea, the Horn of Africa, and the Arabian Sea (another is nearby, at the junction with the Gulf of Aquaba).
The Mormon culture of the previous century discovered this convergence without realizing it, but profited from the vitality by farming the region. That is, until the Bureau of Reclamation and other governmental agencies decided to dam the Colorado River- which would flood the lands at the town of St. James where the convergence occurs. The community moved to the towns of Overton and Glendale to avoid the rising waters.
However, nature has intervened and has now exhumed the drowned town, since Lake Mead has receded and left exposed the old structures of concrete buildings used a century ago. There is a hiking trail, off a gravel road, and well-signed, which can be used to access the bluffs above the abandoned village. One can look down and view the well-preserved structures, and if interested, descend to the site. This site is at the vortex or fulcrum of the rotation of the shallow rocks, and is a TRUE VORTEX OF THE EARTH. It is open to the public, and a trip there will energize you in ways not necessarily related to the NEW AGE CULTURE. This is near the VALLEY OF FIRE state park, NV where the red rocks lying out of position in relation to the older grey limestones may be seen and touched close-up.
Triple Junctions Case Histories
Mississippi-Ohio River Conjunction (New Madrid
Earthquake of 1811-12):
A case with which I have a great familiarity is that of the Mississippi Delta, which was my boyhood homeland. Specifically, I will focus on the graben- which was part of my Dad’s farm- the Big Lake lowlands. These have sunk in man’s history, leaving flooded lands which have now been “leveed off” by the Corps of Engineers and the District 17 impoundment project. This is in the lowlands of the St. Francis drainageway, Chickasawba district, Mississippi County and local bayous- such as the Roseland slough and Little River (which has been artificially disrupted). These all drain to the Mississippi, east of the confluence of the White- the major drainage of eastern Arkansas.
This area is a TRIPLE JUNCTION- by virtue of the junction of two major rivers in the USA. THE NEW MADRID QUAKE OF 1811 occurred nearby and THE SEPARATION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT (BY COUNTER-ROTATING CELLS OF THE GREAT PLAINS AND THE EASTERN HIGHLANDS) HAS BEEN MOVED BY THE ORTHOGONAL SHOVE OF THE APPALACHIAN TREND as the CELLS diverge at the river.
The region has been extending, splitting, and “ripping” since the initial PTr collision of 250 m.y. shoved the continent northwestward. I anticipate that the NE-SW trend of the Appalachians and original orientation of the hills toward Central Texas was determined by this collision in the Paleozoic Era.
However, there have been SUBSEQUENT significant events which have modified the older traces. The youngest sedimentary rocks in the Delta are Eocene (Wilcox formation?), consequently THE REGION have been disrupted by the KT event of 65 m.y. Rotation of the two great cells creates a “rip” northward- opening the stratigraphic column of Southern Illinois, near Cairo, IL, to extension and graben-like movements.
NOTE: I FIND EXPERIMENTALLY THAT AS TWO REACTIONARY CELLS ROTATE, THEY CREATE A “RIP” COUNTER TO THE ROTATION OF THE CELLS- IT PROCEEDS NORTHWARD, WHILE THE ROTATION PROCEEDS SOUTHWARD. This can be demonstrated by the case shown at the SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF CP (COLORADO Plateau), where vulcanism proceeds counter to that of the CCW rotation of CP itself. This creates a “RIP” in the crust as the divergence proceeds to the west. BASALT VULCANISM PROCEEDS WITH TIME FROM THE RIO GRANDE RIFT TO THE ST. GEORGE, UT REGION (NOW):
The opposite case can be documented locally; below is a case where the “rip” produces an upwardly spiraling and rotating cell of only a few hundred meters diameter. This occurs at the conjunction of the Hurricane fault, Hf, and the arcuate canyon presentation near the AZ border with Utah:
F: Hf to Iron county slickensides at Grass Valley spiral
F: spiral, Hf, AZ border
F: Monocline spiral at AZ border
F: spiral geometry
Note that the spiral is upward, CCW at the border of two movements-Hf and Grass Valley rotations- and that the rip occurs at the uphill portion of the rotation.
How do we sort out the possibilities, where both concurrence and oppositely-moving shear occurs? One way is via the orientations shown on slickensides:
Solution to New Madrid, MO Dynamics and latest quake of 1811-12
There is active movement around the LARGEST EARTHQUAKE ZONE IN USA, where I have found artesian pressure, abnormal chemical composition of well water, and evidence of “BLOWOUTS” from the activity there. Information is available from state records, for shallow water well water composition and strata penetrated, to form a contour map on the anomalous zone inside the graben near Big Lake, and I have analyzed these. Two hydrocarbon test wells have been drilled in the anomalous zone, but only shows of gas have been found. First look at the location map and a large view of the shear circles and creek orientations available on GOOGLE EARTH. Below are obvious ellipses and circles surrounding the various entities near the Mississippi River:
Notice that the anomalous zone (ellipses and shear indications) is large- extending from the major bend in the Mississippi River at Cairo, IL and the Ohio River to the Arkansas River. The first conclusion is that the highlands of Kentucky and Tennessee rotate CCW east of the river- opposite to that to the west, where lowlands occur. This is shown by river orientations and drag of bluffs and sinks on either side of the rivers:
There is a tremendous amount information available, and by sorting it one may be able to establish rules for other TRIPLE JUNCTIONS. NOTE THE POSSIBILITY OF ANOMALOUS HEAT, Gt:
THIS IS A LARGE FEATURE, RELATIVE TO ALL NORTH AMERICAN EARTH MECHANICS' ENTITIES. NOT ONLY HAS THIS BEEN THE FULCRUM FOR THE LARGEST QUAKE IN KNOWN HISTORY OF THE USA, BUT THE ELLIPTICAL PRESENTATION HAS BEEN DETERMINED, FIRSTLY, BY PTr (PERMIAN-APPALACHIAN SHOVE NW-WARD), AND LATER BY THE KT STRIKE (CREATING AN ELLIPTICAL PATTERN, RATHER THAN THE SIMPLER CIRCULAR SHEAR CONCENTRATION. CONSEQUENTLY, THERE IS NE-SE BIAS, AS WELL AS EXTENSION FROM THE KT ROTATION OF THE GREAT PLAINS VS. THE REGION EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER (SINKS TO THE WEST AND BLUFFS, MOUNTAINS TO THE EAST).
Above photos pertain to my farm, where a graben occurs, with sand “blowouts”, artesian pressure, and faulting. Deep drilling indicates that Paleozoic formations exist below the Mesozoic and Eocene. Interested earth scientists should obtain records of wells in the large meanders at New Madrid and at the intersection of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, since there should be anomalous geothermal gradient or temperatures there.