## Friday, December 25, 2009

### Coriolis Rotations aid in understanding EARTH PUZZLES

THE PUZZLE OF REJUVENATION IS SOLVED WITH CW ROTATION OF SHRINKING AND COOLING MAGMA, OCCURRING AFTER PRIMARY EXTRUSION HAS TERMINATED. HEAT OF FRICTION FROM BRITTLE CRUST SCRAPING AGAINST NEIGHBORING ROCK CREATES SMALL MAGMA CHAMBERS LONG AFTER INITIAL MAGMA HAS COOLED! NOTE THE SMALL VENT, NAMED WAIKAPU- WHICH IS LOCATED BY A DRAINAGE BETWEEN HALEAKALA AND VOLCANO TO THE WEST. REJUVENATION CONE COMPOSITION HAS DIFFERENT COMPONENTS AFTER INCORPORATION OF SEA WATER, REEF MATERIAL, AND WEATHERING.

Coriolis Force creates almost All Known Geology Puzzles via LOCAL AND REGIONAL Rotation of the Earth’s Crust
Coriolis Force is most easily seen when draining the bathtub. As the water exits, it spirals counter-clock-wise, CCW, north of the Equator. It is generally ignored, since the flow direction may be reversed by simply intervening and rotating one’s finger in the opposite directories- creating clockwise flow. It is seen by most people as a weak force, and it is caused by the SPIN OF THE EARTH.
At the Equator, the surface velocity (relative to an outer space position, or to the NORTH POLE) of anything on a latitude line is approximately 1000 miles per hour, mph, due to the Earth’s spin. This surface velocity becomes less for any latitude north or south of this location, relative to the earth. At the North Pole, the velocity is zero, even though the angular spin is the same- one revolution per day.
Moving northward from the Equator, the surface velocity lessens about 10 nautical miles for each degree of Latitude increase. Consequently, when a rocket is fired northward from the Equator, the surface of the Earth under it does not move as fast as it did when the rocket was fired. The result is a movement to the right as the rocket encounters higher Latitudes. This occurs even when the rocket is fired southward, since the Earth now moves faster to the left under the rocket, and the rocket doesn’t keep up- again resulting in a rightward move in the northern hemisphere. When watching weather systems (moving air), this results in a CCW rotation for low pressure cells (weather-producing, where the air is moving toward the center of the cell) and CW rotation for high-pressure cells (fair weather and sunny skies, moving outward from the pressure source).
This movement depends upon the viscosity of the system, and since air has the smallest viscosity, the weather systems move across the screen and rotate quickly- on a daily basis. The same result occurs for the earth’s Crust, except now the viscosity is much more- on the order of a 100 million times as much as for air. The movement is not noticed by observers on the Earth, since in most cases the velocity is on the order of a millimeter, mm, per year. This is about the thickness of a fingernail, and mostly can be ignored. However, for the earth and Geologic time (in millions of years), this small movement becomes significant- one kilometer per million years.
Considering that 65 million years have occurred since the Dinosaurs have been extinct, the movement of 65 km since this Cretaceous time is very noticeable. As an example, rock rotating along the great Basin and Range, B&R, lateral fault noticeable in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone (Aztec in Nevada), has moved from southern Utah to the Valley of Fire State Park in NV, during this span of time. This lateral displacement may be insignificant for Man’s lifetime scale, but important when finding that the movement of the rock has created a GEOLOGICAL ANOMALY.
These rotating cells are easily seen on the Google Earth map- as circular features creating arcuate river paths or as fossil traces on the surface of the earth. They rotate CW for sinking areas (basins or sinking ground), and CCW for rising areas (mountains, magmas, or salt domes). The rotation orientation may be noticed by looking for the drag of river banks- one side relative to the other. In the field, the rotation creates what is known as slickensides- slick silicate surfaces on rock which may shine in the sunlight (even on dark limestone). Sometimes they will exhibit striations or etched parallel lines showing the lateral movement- with claw marks showing that a pebble in the rock has dug into the opposite side to show direction of drag.
Use of this technique simplifies structural geology considerably, since with its use the fault reversal noticed near vulcanism is related to the original heating (rise) of the magma, versus the shrinking (sinking) of the cooling mass (SOMETIMES ALLOWING THE CRUST TO REVERSE ITS DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT). Other enigmas include the occurrence of rejuvenation cones on the islands of Hawaii, where two cooling volcanoes rotate similarly (Maui), creating friction and heat between them (end result- a small cone, Waikapu). These anomalies are easily found by locating circular river paths on Google Earth photos. Circular cells adjacent to an arcuate river path rotate CW on the inside of a circular path (sinking), while uplifts or hills and mountains rotate CCW (uplift) on the outside adjacent contact of a circular river path. Case studies show that most of the Anomalies not understood by Geologists can be clarified with the use of a few Coriolis Rules. These will be enumerated for cases shown further down in the Blog.
LATER TREATISES ARE MORE ACCURATE THAN EARLIER ONES, SINCE MORE CASES HAVE BEEN ANALYZED

To be continued, but many cases are shown earlier in the BLOG- SCROLL DOWN!
,
Pulsing and rotating of the CRUST about the Hurricane Fault is shown in photos above and below: This is seen also for the terraces near the town of VIRGIN- PROCEEDING INTO KOLOB CANYON: This is exemplified by a DIAGRAM- which shows the movements,both vertically and horizontally, for outcrops found near the Grass Valley crater, Hurricane, Utah:

## Thursday, December 24, 2009

### DEATH VALLEY RESULTS FROM MANTLE MOVING EASTWARD, CONFLICTING WITH SLOWING EQUATORIAL BULGE MOVING CRUST WESTWARD

MANTLE DRAG-MOUNTAIN AUGMENTED CRUSTAL SHEAR or MAD-MACS is my acronym for this:
Above is a Google photo of the central part of the Death Valley, DV, National Park. It is the locus of our activities interested in finding the larger rotations and linears creating the entity. There is mainly right-lateral faulting there, but also interference between two large outside rotations- the Sierra-Central Valley couplet ellipse, and the Basin and Range, B&R, CW rotation about the state of NV and part of UT.
Notice that North is diagonal to the map- parallel to the NV border with CA which is at the top of the map. Study the large valleys first, to determine the principal movements (Valleys show the low part of a rotation, which indicates CW movement; mountains, if independant, show the uplift and CCW rotation). When two movements are combined (as in this view), a couplet is created and slickensides must be found to determine the direction and orientation of the Coriolis cell.
A LOCATOR MAP IS SHOWN ABOVE, TO ORIENT ONE FOR THE VAST DISTANCES INVOLVED:
Above Google Photo introduces the complexity exhibited in Death Valley, DV, Park- where there are at least two large features impinging upon the region. The Basin and Range, B&R, rotates CW around the states of NV and part of UT (EAST), and the Sacramento-Sierra couplet exists to the west. The result is an ellipse, oriented NW-SE between the two larger entities. This is expanded below (Note that the photo is arranged NW-SE, between the border of NV and inside CA):
Upon driving into Beatty, NV from Las Vegas, where the great Lateral fault surrounding NV has been analyzed, I found that Beatty is located in the midst of extrusives, hot springs, and other anomlous GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA.
CLOSEUP OF BEATTY AND SURROUNDING MINES AND CORIOLIS CELLS: Realizing that this may be the edge of the shear zone found at the edge of the B&R fault, I made the following Google and personal photos:

Field work in Death Valley allows inspection of SLICKENSIDES- which show the lateral movement in canyons. The photo below shows iron-faced slicks on sandstone:
More Slickensides: In Titus Canyon, the PreCambrian dolomites do not exhibit slickensides of silicated faces- rather they portray pressured carbonates (solubility increases with shear pressure), which coated the shear surface with travertine upon release of pressure:

Normally, volcanic vents occur on the east side of Badwater Basin, because that is where the brittle friction, CREATED BY LATERALLY-SHEARING FAULTS, TRANSPIRES. However, where there is rotation at a canyon mouth, as in the following 2 photos, HEAT IS GENERATED BY AN OPENING (SEPARATION OF TWO ROTATING CELLS) WHICH ALLOWS THE MAGMA TO EXTRUDE- as in the Panamint Range to the west:

GARLOCK FAULT FROM THE LOS ANGELES AREA EXTENDS TO THE SOUTHERN PART OF DEATH VALLEY (AND THEN CEASES- WHICH IS A MAJOR CLUE).
This feature determines the anomalous behavior of DV, since the fault moves crust eastward on the SOUTH SIDE. Conversely, a glance at the coast of CA tells that the NORTH SIDE OF THE FAULT is moving westward. TO confirm this behavior, note the TRANSFORM SHEARING THE OCEANIC CRUST ALL THE WAY TO MIDWAY ISLAND. Further agreement is noticed with the kink in the HI-Emperor seamount chain, which occurs at this Midway location (28 m.y. measured age). The chain is diverted eastward south of the island, and westward north of Midway.
My reasoning for the inflection in the chain has to do with the influence of two major entities determining the dynamic behavior of the CRUST:
1. Coriolis Rotation determines the movement of most Crustal cells between 40N and 40S latitudes, except for the zone between 10N and 10S- where the difference between velocities of the surface of the earth between latitude lines is almost negligible.
This dynamic force is due to THE SPIN OF THE EARTH.
2. The Equatorial Bulge, EB, terminates near the 40 latitudes- WHERE LATERAL SHEAR OCCURS- but ALSO has its effect where there is a major MOUNTAIN RANGE- SUCH AS THE SIERRAS- AT WHICH LATITUDINAL SPREAD THE CRUST IS MOVED WESTWARD MORESO THAN OTHERWISE (THIS REPRESENTS AN INCREASE IN CRUSTAL THICKNESS, UPON WHICH TIDAL INFLUENCES FROM THE MOON INCREASE). THIS MECHANICAL INFLUENCE IS DUE TO THE SLOWING OF THE EARTH AS TIDAL FRICTION BETWEEN MOON AND EARTH CONTINUE (WITH ALL TIME)!

As a consequence of this conflict, EB is dominant whenever there is an significant increase in CRUSTAL THICKNESS, and Coriolis Rotation is dominant whenever the Mantle drags the base of the crust- which is the normal case.
Following oceanic transforms across the Pacific demonstrates that shear occurs westward of 40N and from protruding coastlines, such as that at Los Angeles and Mendocino, CA.

The connection between the Midway I. transform and the Garlock-DV southern boundary is shown below:

WE WILL PORTRAY THIS BEHAVIOR, AND HOW IT INFLUENCES DEATH VALLEY WITH THE DIAGRAM BELOW- WHICH SHOWS THAT THE DV PHENOMENON TERMINATES AT ITS SOUTH BOUNDARY WHERE THE GARLOCK FAULT OCCURS.

PACIFIC BASIN TRANSFORMS LOCATION AND ORIENTATION ARE DETERMINED BY THE DISTRIBUTION OF PROTRUDING MOUNTAIN RANGES TO THE EAST

Here is the correlation:
1. Equatorial Bulge, EB, and other protruding CRUST RESULT IN INCREASED TIDAL DRAG FROM THE MOON. This drag causes westward shear of Latitudinal Blocks, where a mountain range height adds to EB- augmenting the total drag and shear;
2. The first transform occurring in EB is that at 40N (Mendocino, CA), which proceeds to the 41 m.y. KINK IN THE HI-EMPEROR CHAIN. Consequently the most noticeable effect is along this TRANSFORM, WHICH STARTS AT THE LATITUDE OF THE NORTH BOUNDARY OF THE SIERRAS. The Sierras are being shoved westward due to the tidal drag, and they orient NW-SE, because of the addition of EB plus MOUNTAIN PROTRUSION INCREASING TO THE SOUTH (TOWARD THE EQUATOR);
3. CESSATION OF THE SIERRAS CORRELATES (PROCEEDING SOUTHWARD) WITH THE SECOND PACIFIC TRANSFORM- WHICH CREATES THE GARLOCK E-W FAULT. This system of faults also correlates with the beginning of the open desert and with the location of DEATH VALLEY- which represents a transition between the SIERRAS’ LOCATION AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BASIN AND RANGE, B&R, AND COLORADO PLATEAU, CP;
4. IN OTHER WORDS, WHERE THERE ARE HIGH MOUNTAIN RANGES, THERE OCCURS INCREASED WESTWARD SHEAR, AND WHERE THERE IS LOW DESERT, THE DRAG OF THE MANTLE IS TOWARD THE EAST (RATHER THAN WEST FOR THE TIDAL DRAG);
5. THIS PORTRAIT DETERMNES THE ORIENTATION AND LOCATION OF THE PACIFIC HOURGLASS- WHERE ITS SYMMETRY IS DETERMINED BY THE LOCATION OF THE TWO MAJOR TRANSFORMS: MIDWAY AND THE 41 M.Y. KINK IN THE HI-EMEROR SEAMOUNT CHAIN (AND WHERE ITS CENTERLINE ORIENTATION IS ALSO NW-SE, SIMILARLY TO THE COAST LINE OF CA);
6. Maui sits astride another major transform, and below this latitude there is again westward shear- which is correlated with the reappearance of a westward jutting peninsula and high elevation in Baja Peninsula, Mexico. THE CORRELATION BECOMES LESS IMPORTANT WITH THE INCREASING EB TO THE SOUTH, AND THE EASTWARD-MOVING CENTRAL AMERICA AND WEST INDIES ISLANDS INDICATE THAT EB DOMINATES THIS REGION (COMPARED TO MOUNTAIN RANGES);
7. THE WESTWARD TIDAL DRAG RESULTS IN THE DEEPEST EASTERN PACIFIC BASIN, AS ISOSTASY IS OFFSET BY THE SHOVE TO THE WEST. IN ADDITION, THE SHOVE OF THE SIERRAS TO THE WEST INITIATES ROTATION OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY-SIERRA COUPLET (ROTATING CCW, LOOKING NORTHWARD), SO THAT THE VALLEY SINKS WHILE THE SIERRAS RISE;
8. South of the Equator, the tidal drag becomes of lesser importance again, and the ANDES mountains indicate that Mantle drag becomes dominant until the 40S termination of EB occurs. SUBDUCTION IS DUE TO EASTWARD MANTLE DRAG, WHEREVER THERE ARE NO HIGH MOUNTAIN RANGES, in the Northeast Pacific (AND NOT TO MANTLE PLUMES, HOTSPOTS, OR PLATE MOVEMENTS);
9. ABSENCE OF CONTINENTS AND MOUNTAIN RANGES RESULTS IN EASTWARD-JUTTING ISLAND CHAINS- SUCH AS THE WEST INDIES AND THE SHETLANDS (AS THE MANTLE, MOVING FASTER THAN CRUST, DRAGS CRUST EASTWARD). ALL OF THESE REMARKS PERTAIN TO THE NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC; THE INDIAN AND THE ATLANTIC OCEANS ARE IN ZONES OF DIFFERENT MASS DISTRIBUTION. NO CORRELATION HAS BEEN FOUND FOR THOSE REGIONS; and,
10. Dating of the movement may be made by use of the date of the Midway Islands (28 m.y. FOR 530 KM SEPARATION, OR 250 KM ALONG THE CA COAST, OR 3.8 MM/YEAR WESTWARD MOVEMENT, SINCE KT), which is about the western-most LOCATION of the shear westward, created by tidal drag. THIS IS MIOCENE time, or latest Oligocene, and corresponds to the time generally accepted by the GEOLOGY CULTURE, which initiated wide-spread vulcanism along B&R faulting.
INCIDENTALLY, THE B&R IS CREATED BY THE WESTWARD DRAG OF THE SIERRAS, AS THE MOVEMENT TO THE WEST CREATES EXTENSION OF THIS GREAT BASIN. THE WASATCH LINE IS THE FURTHEREST EAST INFLUENCE OF THE DRAG CREATED BY THE SIERRAS MOVING WESTWARD. COMPRESSION IS THE DOMINANT FEATURE IN THE COLORADO PLATEAU TO THE EAST.

IT IS EXPECTED THAT THE MARIANAS TRENCH IS RELATED TO THIS WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF THE CRUST, AND I WILL PUBLISH A SEPARATE TREATISE ON THIS SUBJECT.

IMPLICATIONS OF MANTLE DRAG-MOUNTAIN AUGMENTED CRUSTAL SLOWING (acronym: MAD-MACS)
1. Should the influence of tall mountain chains be universally pertinent for causing western movement between ocean transforms, it will have to pass the test for other basins. It occurs for the Alaskan Panhandle, but poorly for the segment west of the Baja Peninsula of Mexico (Maui to 15N transform to the south, which is moving westward from the Baja Peninsula).
Further, the coast of South America, SA, shows subduction throughout the western coast, where the Andes Mountains are tall and continuous, with the exception of the Chilean coast, where MAD-MACS SEEMS TO BE IN EFFECT. The southern Pacific- we have found -is operating under different rules, since there is a re-distribution of mass northward, and we will treat this separately.
2. The trend of the CA western-moving system is oriented NW-SE, and this could be due to the history of the region before the last POLAR AXIS CHANGE. However, the orientation of the younger HI-Emperor chain, and the spreading of N-S faulting more to the south in B&R indicates that the NW-SE orientation is young. Further, the highest mountain in the Sierras is Mt. Whitney- which is near the southern boundary of the Sierras segment. This indicates that the combination of EB and tall mountains moves to the west slower than that at the Mendocino transform, or that Coriolis rotation is dominating the presentation. The orientation of the Alaskan Panhandle is similar (to the NW), and the effect of diagonal orientation of coastline to the movement to the west must be significant. In Death Valley, DV, the convergence of faulting- at Badwater and Furnace Creek- indicates a shift to the north for the lateral faulting. The vulcanism concentration is near this point also, the termination of the GARLOCK FAULT occurs at the south, and the rotation of blocks under the influence of EASTERN DRAG BY THE MANTLE is initiated there (indicated by the vertical rotation of the Armargosa Range). The larger influence of EB, compared to the high mountains, must be the clue necessary to compare orientations of CA coast and Sierras (as far as the portrait being diagonal to the western movement of the segment).
Measuring the displacement along the Garlock Fault, it is twice the displacement along the continental shelf at Mendocino (200 vs. 100 km), and this indicates that movement along the south fault is faster than in the north. This is opposite to what would be expected for the segment being rotated to a diagonal orientation, but it does relate that the DV dynamics is more rapid, than at Mendocino. The EB terminates at Mendocino, while at DV it is greater in thickness. Altogether, the data are telling us that Coriolis rotation, CCW, for the CA cell (rising Sierras) is causing the diagonal presentation of the Sierras relative to the expected westward drag (due west).
3. It is VERY SIGNIFINCANT THAT THE SIERRAS ARE INFLUENCING THE CRUST ALL THE WAY TO MIDWAY ISLAND. This is some 5200 km separation, and indicates that the Pacific Crust is easily dragged, even though it is composed of THIN BASALT! The same result occurs for the Chilean coast. This has nothing to do with the mantle, since we are analyzing a rectangular segment of crust, the latitudinal span being the same as for the Sierras.
The orientation of the Hi-Emperor chain is not the same as that for the Sierras (115 degrees, as compared to 150 from north for the mountain chain). Complicating all this is Coriolis rotation within the CA segment, so that the chain, being on thinner crust, rotates more easily than for the CA thicker crust. Segment shape is that of a trapezoid, rather than a parallelogram. MY CONCLUSION IS THAT THE NW-SE ORIENTATON OF THE SIERRAS AND THE HAWAIIAN CHAIN IS DUE TO CORIOLIS ROTATION, AND NOT TO A HISTORICAL PRESENTATIOM OCCURRING BEFORE THE LAST POLAR AXIS CHANGE!

INTER-RELATION OF EB, CORIOLIS ROTATION, AND MOUNTAIN CHAINS SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR
There are three factors operating on the coastlines of the Pacific continents which determine whether there is Subduction (vertically-rotating N-S cells), Mantle drag to the East, or Mountain-augmented shear to the west (creating latitudinal transforms):
1. Coriolis rotations occur between the Zones 40N to 40S, except for a minimal effect between 10N and 10S. Therefore at the SA Equator, there will be no Coriolis effect noticeable. This is the location of SA where the westernmost protrusion of the continent occurs. Analysis should start here, since the complication of horizontal rotation is absent (BUT STILL PRESENT IS THE VERTICAL ROTATION CREATED BY THE DRAG OF THE UNDERLYING MANTLE, PROCEEDING EASTWARD). Notice that subduction under SA is absent from 1S northward, but continual to the south, until Chile (40S) is reached;
2. The MANTLE IS MOVING SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE CRUST (BECAUSE OF LESSER TIDAL FRICTION FROM THE MOON), and this creates an eastward drag on the base of the crust. This is the normal dynamics for the whole globe, and should occur wherever there is rotation. This eliminates the poles and parallels close to them (Antarctica has visible effect to about 70S Latitude). There should be no vertical rotation for either the Arctic or Antarctica; and,
3. The EB CONSISTS OF TWO SEPARATE ENTITIES: THAT DUE TO CENTRIFUGAL FORCE (CREATING AN EXTRA-LARGE DIAMETER OF THE EARTH FROM ABOUT 40N TO 40S, AND THAT DUE TO MOUNTAIN RANGES WITHIN THE BULGE- SUCH AS THE SIERRAS. BOTH OF THESE PROTRUSIONS SHOULD CREATE A WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF A CRUSTAL SEGMENT ALONG TRANSFORMS (WHICH ARE CREATED BY THE MOVEMENT). This may be opposed or augmented by the Coriolis movements. In SA, the rotation of the continent is generally CW, and the end result is that Coriolis is dominant, In NA, rotation is generally CCW, and the two forces do not work in concert. Mantle Drag-Mountain augmented Crustal Shear (MAD-MACS) WEST OF THE SIERRAS CAUSES WEST MOVEMENT OF SEGMENTS. Notice that the latitudinal spread of the Sierras is similar to the spacing between Midway Island and the kink in the HI-Emperor chain (5-6 degrees).

SA has subduction from near the Equator (1S) to the Chile 40S Latitude. This includes zones where all three factors of DRAG, CORIOLIS ROTATION, AND MOUNTAIN RANGE-INDUCED SHEAR OCCUR. Hence, the transforms are short- E to W- or non-existent. The combination of Coriolis and Mantle drag is dominant- overcoming any westward movements. The overall presentation of SA is such, that it is far to the east of NA, and this evidently is the reason. Transforms which are of wide westward extent appear from the EB location 32S and further south. Those north of 32S are short-lived, indicating little influence of mountain ranges. The western movement is present, but offset (and more) by the combination of Coriolis and Mantle Drag.
TO EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF CORIOLIS, VIS-VIS THE WESTWARD DRAG DUE TO MOUNTAIN RANGES, LOOK AT CENTRAL AMERICA, WHERE PART HAS LATITUDES LESS THAN 10 DEGREES N. LATITUDE (WHERE CORIOLIS ROTATION IS MINOR):

TO BE CONTINUED; SCROLL DOWN FOR INFORMATION WHICH WILL BE AUGMENTED LATER. KEEP IN MIND THAT I AM WORKING THIS OUT AS I GO ALONG, SO THAT THERE ARE ERRORS IN EARLIER PRESENTATIONS, WHICH ARE LATER CORRECTED. I HAVE HAD TO ELIMINATE MUCH INFORMATION FROM THE LITERATURE, WHICH HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE ERRONEOUS!

## Saturday, December 19, 2009

### MARIANAS TRENCH, MOVING EASTWARD AND CREATING SMALLER RADIUS OF CURVATURE WITH TIME

The Marianas Trench, and Eastward Movement with Time
Traces left on the Pacific floor indicate that there is a progression of movement of the trench toward the east, with time. Since this is the deepest and most actively-diving entity for the entire globe, it bears investigation to determine whether it fits with my findings that Coriolis cells are involved in Dynamics features for almost everything in the Crust, except the 40N or 40S terminations of the Equatorial Bulge (and minimally for latitudes between 10N and 10 S). Not clear is the spreading of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and its simultaneous influence on moving features, such as the Hurricane fault. Deferred is the re-arrangement of the Polar Axis and related Equator position (after the possible KT strike), which re-set the Coriolis Forces to a new direction (relative to the actively-spinning Equator).
The feature which makes me conclude that Coriolis forces are dominant in Structural Geology, and that these are NOT primarily influenced by movements of the Mantle (or Plumes and circulations there), is the appearance of the Pacific Hourglass.
This feature creates a mirror image of the trace of the HI-Emperor seamount chain, some 2500 miles to the west. Mantle plumes would not be of this magnitude, and even if so, would not create a symmetrical feature, such as the Hourglass. Only features which operate on a GLOBAL SCALE would present such a portrait. Known entities- thinking globally- include Coriolis rotation, Equatorial Bulge Diminution, Magnetic Polarity reversals, and Telluric currents (probably related to Magnetism). Asteroids and meteor strikes certainly have their global influence, but they are almost random, and cannot be entertained.
The Pacific hourglass lower portion is shown above, sub-divided in two Coriolis cells, which are the largest for this feature. There are several smaller ones, in the center of the lower skirt of the hourglass, and we will consider that they are subordinate to the larger feature. This I have found is generally true, but there is a difference in rotation velocity along Latitude lines, so that small cells have a larger maximum velocity (at the extremity of the cells), compared to the cells with greater diameter. I have placed yellow pins at islands, linears, vents, and transforms where significance to the overall circular configuration occurs. These pins show the cell circumferences, for both the larger half of the hourglass, and for the somewhat smaller cell within it. ABOVE IS SHOWN THE DISPLACEMENT OF THE EAST PART OF THE HOURGLASS, WHICH IS THE SAME AS THE HI-EMPEROR SEAMOUNT CHAIN. THIS TRACE OF THE NA QUADRANSPHERE PATH IS PART OF THE ROTATION OF THE ENTIRE NORTH AMERICA CELL.
The first feature of interest (to me) is the crossing of the Equator by the skirt’s lower transform. The fact of the traverse means that there is a wobble of the Earth or a non-equilibrium of rotation of the earth in respect to rotation of the skirt cell. The surface velocity at the Equator should be maximum for the whole Earth, so that Coriolis forces would not result in a crossing of the Equator. However, since I use as my model the Coriolis-induced weather patterns, the annual appearance of the Inter-Tropical Wave might be instructive to investigate. Ignoring this infraction for the time, notice that the rotation of the skirt explains the appearance of a double line of volcanic islands for the larger HI islands. It has been proposed that this double set of extrusions is a regular feature for the HI chain. This is not correct, since islands or seamounts north of the skirt would have nothing in common with the rotation of the more southerly skirt- being related to the more northerly rotation in times before 28 m.y. (Midway Island).
The skirt’s lower boundary- the E-W transform crossing the Equator- continues to the 5S latitude (near the S. Pacific island of Nanumanga), and this is a considerable anomaly. Possibly, the EB is maximum at this location, so that spatial velocity is maximum there (instead of at the geometrical Equator). Major changes occur further west, due to approach of the Australian plate (moving northward), and it is best not to mix the Southern Hemisphere with an analysis of the North.
Before proceding further, look at the larger picture- that of the entire North Pacific Ocean basin. Below, it shows that the northern zone- above the Equator- has 5 bands of Latitude, with about 8 degrees of separation each, which influence the direction of movement and rotation of large Coriolis cells: This is scanned below, viewing above and below the Equator: Notice that the band span is still about 8 degrees of Latitude between two successive transforms. Best not to mix these two categories- North and South of the Equator just yet. The rules for the south are different, since the masses in the south are generally moving northward and difficult to separate from the Coriolis effects- which are scanty. We will put this on the BACK BURNER, BUT THE FACT OF A CROSS-EQUATORIAL FEATURE CANNOT BE IGNORED! Looking at the entire feature, which is circular and surrounds the Galapagos Islands, the Baja Peninsula rotation, the SEAMOUNT AND ISLANDS OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC, AND THE MIDWAY ISLAND POSITION ON THE HI-EMPEROR CHAIN. THIS IS VERY SIGNIFICANT, FROM A WORLD VIEW OF EARTH DYNAMICS.
Finding the termination of the HEMISPHERE CIRCLE requires a leap across the Andes Mts. to the SOUTH OF SOUTH AMERICA. In two stages, notice how the trace arrives back at the 40N latitude, where the Equatorial Bulge terminates (same as at Mendocino, where the anomaly started in our examination):

Finding which EB is now in effect requires some additional analysis: IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC, THERE IS A PARTIAL BULGE BOUNDARY SHOWN FOR THE VOLCANIC ISLANDS OF FRENCH POLYNESIA, and we will try to determine if it is younger than the hemispheric Pacific Hemispheric Display, PHD. Notice that in the following photo, there is displacement along a transform of the partial circle. This suggests that PHD is younger; however, the active vulcanism in the partial one suggests the opposite. We will have to resolve this dilemma with other analyses: Equatorial Bulge changes, since Polar Axis shift
The above Google photo shows part of the boundary of EB, for the South Pacific, indicating that EB can be traced from Mendocino at 40N Latitude to the South American Bulge at 18S. This is shown by transforms for the E-W portion and by islands and seamounts for the west portion. My interpretation of the transit across SA to the 23S Latitude in the Atlantic is shown above and below, untouched, except for YELLOW PINS SHOWING DEFINITE CIRCULAR PATHS FOR EB MOVEMENT.
The east portrait transits inland at North America, just below Long Island, NY- evidently determining the E-W orientation of the island.
EB NORTHERN BOUNDARY in the NORTH ATLANTIC EB NORTHERN BOUNDARY in the NORTH ATLANTIC

There are several reasons why it is INCORRECT that the EB transit across South America from the bulge on the Andes side goes NE along the AMAZON RIVER rather than SE towards the South Atlantic (eventually reaching Long Island, NY): 1. The curved paths across the Equator and toward the inflections in the ocean basin are not concentric, about the Central America ellipse;
2. The Equatorial Bulge should have a larger span of Latitude over the land mass- NOT smaller;
3. I have worked in the field on the Anatolia, Turkey case, and know that the development is similar to that for the Colorado Plateau, in that EB terminates below the Black Sea; and,
4. The Straits of Gibraltar allow the transit of the Bulge boundary, as do other islands in the Mediterranean Sea.

Although it is difficult to see the southern boundary of EB in the south Atlantic, it is apparent north of the Equator. It is shown via the yellow pins on the following Google Earth map:
There is other information shown by the placement of the pins. Note that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, MAR, has displaced transforms shown for the very transit investigated. This indicates that there is CCW rotation for the east side, relative to the west side. This would make the eastern side a rise, versus a deep to the west. This is confirmed for the Cape Verde and other islands occurring to the east, where there are none to the west. Further, the rotation of reactionary cells, RC, may be used to determine the direction of rotation along the EB boundary. Note the large cell rotating just north of EB, in the Atlantic just west of Gibraltar.

Between these two coastal locations is a vast circular exhibit of CRUSTAL DISPLAYS, and to the south are many islands which evidently result from the movements of the Bulge and its independent Coriolis rotations. My experience working with these cells and with areas I have investigated in the field (for geological information) shows that these two entities are responsible for almost all of the STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY features of the globe. Let’s get some measured information, to check further from the above photo, by using Google Earth tools.
Displacement by a newly-forming Bulge Boundary is shown for the TRANSFORM at 6S Latitude- which is 111 km. and if this is divided by the time since KT, this results in 1.7 mm/year movement of the transform, northward. Pitcairn Island is 404 km from the newly-forming transform to its north, and this results in the Bulge being displaced to the north by 218 nm (minutes of arc, or 3.64 degrees of Latitude). I think that this is small, for the re-orientation of the Polar Axis, but we will add it to the HOPPER (IT MIGHT BE DUE MAINLY TO TIDAL FRICTION- causing slowing of the spin of the EARTH). The main assumption, so far, uses the Physicist Alveraz’s finding that an Asteroid Strike was responsible for the Yucatan crater at 65 m.y. Cretaceous time. This re-set the Polar Axis and resultant Equator, and the Crust has been adjusting continuously since then to offset the MECHANICAL FORCE AND SHOCK TO THE SPINNING EARTH. This has little to do with the Coriolis cells which are noticed within the bulge, except that they react to the movements of the Earth and are positioned by the Bulge transforms and boundaries.
The above photo indicates that the EB now in force is being supplanted by one further to the north (further to east than the crossover point), and is creating a zone of active vulcanism at the CROSSING OF THE TWO FEATURES.
This is hinted by two findings on the photo:
1. The rising feature to the west (upward-moving entities in the Southern Hemisphere rotate CW, oppositely to that in the north) has many active volcanoes on South Pacific Islands; and,
2. The transform at 6S is being displaced to the north, the expected occurrence for a diminishing EB.

We’ll have to check this however we can, but it seems that EB is the only entity which could cross the Equator, of the known SPINNING EARTH PHEMOMENA. We have to prove that the bulge is generally moving westward with time (relative to the Mantle, which is more distant and more dependant on the core of the earth- which is more neutral), due to the CRUST BEING SLOWED BY TIDAL INTERACTION WITH THE MOON. I have previously calculated that the Crust at the Equator is moving westward 6 nm/million years, due to the measured Length of Day (LOD) increase, of 24 seconds of time (relative to the non-bulge region).
A preliminary check on these tentative conclusions is supplied by referring to the GEOID. There is departure in the South Pacific to Antarctica on the positive side, for the Geoid, and this could be instituted by rising- which is what is suggested in the photo. WHAT WE HAVE GOTTEN FROM ALL THIS IS THAT THE OCEAN CRUST DISPLAYS FEATURES ON A HEMISPHERE SCALE, AND THIS MAY HELP UNDERSTAND THE MARIANAS TRENCH.

Back to the Marianas Trench, the eastward progression of the traces of previous fossil arcs seems to fit the finding that EB is moving eastward for latitudes between 40N and 40S. The Radius of Curvature diminishes with the eastward progression, and this denotes that the anomaly is decreasing in size with time. This would not be expected for Earth slowing with Tidal influence from the Moon; another possibility is that the Marianas arc is rotating faster- hence becoming smaller in diameter. Should this be the case, it cannot be attributed to slowing of the earth or moon- both of which would result in lesser influence. Slowing of either results in decrease of Equatorial spatial velocity. This event has occurred since the Miocene, so that a short-time wobbling, nutation, or wandering of the Pole is eliminated.
Alluding to the “sliced fruit analogy” whenever a slice in the Earth is made vertically- the trace is linear, whereas a lesser angle of slicing produces a circular configuration. A slice near the surface results in a smaller curvature on the fruit, and this is one tale suggested by the increase of curvature (smaller radius of curvature) with time. But what has produced the change? Should the increase in angular velocity be the “Usual Suspect” and the CRUSTAL MOVEMENT BE OCCURRING SHALLOWER WITH TIME, then the DEEP TRENCH NEARBY WOULD CORROBORATE, SINCE IT IS DEEPENNG FASTER THAN SILTATION CAN OFFSET THE PROCESS. The many vents noticed nearby to the east would hint that external events are creating the faster rotation.
I have placed a linear measurement from the Marianas Trench from inflection to inflection (about 1/3rd of an arc), which has an associated distance of 1543 km. The centerline diameter would be approximately similar in magnitude, hinting that the Hourglass skirt is superior in influence.
Below are shown Coriolis cells east of the Marianas- where there is a rotation inside of a rotation, indicating subsea VENTS which are reacting to the northward movement of the volcanism experienced in the Marianas (Anatahan and others are still erupting to the north, while Guam has NO GEOTHERMAL EXPRESSIONS).

RELICT EQUATORIAL BULGE ANALYSIS
There’s a chance that there Is a RELICT EB, which has been abandoned as the EARTH SLOWS, which will yield information about the development of the Marianas Trench. Consider this SCENARIO, WHERE THERE REMAINS A CIRCULAR PORTRAIT OF ISLANDS AND SEAMOUNTS WHICH TRACE A LARGER BULGE AROUND THE EARTH (than the one we have chased from Mendocino, finally westward from Turkey to Long Island, NY). This scenario is necessary to consider, because the part of the globe from the Marianas to Asia Minor has been ignored. This Asian portion is irregular, partly because both the Australian region and India have moved northward and introduced a complication in a world-wide analysis.
Starting with Wake Island, which is NEAR the western edge of the great Pacific transform originating at Mendocino, CA, this can be followed to Bairiki Island, at 1N Latitude in the Gilberts, to Samoa at 13S, to THE SOUTH AMERICAN COAST AT 33S ALONG TRANSFORMS AND VENTS ON THE OCEAN FLOOR.

Tracing the relict path across the continent is again difficult, but there appears regular shear (Bay trending eastward on the south side) on the east coast of SA) at 42S Latitude. After this location, tracing EB along obvious transforms becomes problematic, but there is an inflection in the MAR AT 47S, after which the south tip of Africa is found. The scenario has some credence as a relict bulge boundary, back in time, since the trace of India moving northward should have influenced the further east traces before the MID-TERTIARY TIME. After this the trace would make a smooth transition toward the Persian Gulf, but again by-passing most of Asia.
All of this is rank speculation, but allows some insight into the formation of the Marianas Trench, because in both cases the previous or present EB is shown well east of the trench. The trench therefore represent a discontinuity in the world-wide portrait of EB and of genesis of the rebirth of EB with time (due to slowing of the spin rate of the EARTH as the MOON slows the spin and increases the length of day, LOD.
Trans-Equatorial features, for the Earth-Moon System
There are a number of entities observed on Google Earth maps which indicate that Coriolis and Equatorial Bulge (EB) termination are not the only dynamics operating on the SPINNING EARTH. These include:
1. Chains of islands which form patterns crossing the Equator;
2. Seamounts and ocean bottom features which trend from the Antarctica toward the NE;
3. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, MAR; and,
4. The great Rift Zone of Africa.

Since Coriolis rotations and EBD cannot cross the equator, there must be other dynamics operating:
A. Magnetic pulsing and cycling, including polarity change;
B. Asteroid strikes, which are also mechanical in nature (among many other facets); and,
C. Contraction of the earth, as it slows and incurs longer length of day, LOD.
Several factors are operating on the last category:
a. The moon with its earth tides exerts friction on the velocity of the earth, thereby slowing it and shrinking bulges due to Centrifugal Force;
b. The earth-moon system is one which has a center of mass which is not at the center of the earth; rather, the circle about which the system spirals is near the Mantle-Crust boundary. This creates a sinusoidal-spiraling helix rotating about the Ecliptic (which is the annual path of the earth-moon system around the sun); and.
c. The continents shrink slowly, with large viscosity, while the oceans react within days to reduction of bulges and movement of mass away from shrinking regions.
Factor c. above is difficult to visualize, but essentially the pair of Earth-Moon bodies complete an annual cycle by rotating about each other (THE CENTER OF MASS) monthly, while rotating annually about the SUN. Since the moon has an angle of about 5 degrees to the Ecliptic, and the earth has about 27.5 degrees, there is a wobble created by the little dance. This wobble creates a path in three dimensions for the essentially planar ecliptic, and in doing so results in a path which is mostly south of the Equator. That is, the moon is on the south side of our Equator more often than otherwise. This is an imbalance- because of the wobble.
The path can be seen on the following Earth photo from 22,000 miles in space from a satellite.

Notice that the weather creates the visible path, by the trend of the clouds. Also notice that there are two altitudinal trends:
i. Our weather occurs in the lower 10 km of atmosphere (low refers to low altitude), and
ii. An upper level band of clouds moves across the Equator, deviating around the South Pacific islands. It is my conclusion that the circum-global trend is motivated by the monthly movement of the center of mass of the Earth-Moon system.
NOW COMPARE THE WEATHER MAP TO A GOOGLE EARTH OCEAN BASIN MAP:

CONTINUING SOUTH OF AFRICA, VIA THE ATLANTIC CROSSING, WE APPROACH THE GREAT RIFT ZONE: THERE IS CONSIDERABLE CONJECTURE IN THIS ANALYSIS. THE IMPORTANT FEATURE IS THAT ANOTHER WORLD-WIDE PHENOMENON IS INVOLVED: THE INFLUENCE OF THE MOON AND ITS MONTHLY ROTATION (ALONG WITH THE EARTH AND THE CENTER OF MASS OF THE DUO) IN A HELICAL PATH ALONG THE ECLIPTIC. THIS IS ENTIRELY DUE TO THE WOBBLE CREATED BY THE SPIRALING-WAXING AND WANING MOVEMENT ALONG THE ANNUAL ECLIPTIC PATH ABOUT THE SUN.

Incorporating these analyses above, we now can look at the MARIANAS TRENCH, to determine whether the MANTLE DRAG TO THE EAST NOTICED WHENEVER THERE IS NO MOUNTAIN CHAIN TO MOVE THE DRAG IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION: Notice that there are several Coriolis cells, which appear to be REACTIONARY CELLS (MOVING IN RESPONSE TO A LARGER ENTITY). A FIRST GUESS IS THAT THE MANTLE IS DRAGGING THE CRUST TO THE EAST, AND OVER-PRINTING A NEW CIRCULAR DEVELOPMENT ON TOP OF FOSSIL, OR RELICT, TRACES. The cell has only partially developed (having no bottom half), and appears to be reacting to two linears (large-diameter partial arcs) at right angles to each other. Search these cells for a clue to their rotation direction.

TO BE CONTINUED; SCROLL DOWN TO FIND BUILD-UP TO THIS ANALYSIS!