Monday, December 7, 2009
Vulcanism classified according to Coriolis Shear and HEAT FORMATION
From my observations of the PORTRAITS OF CORIOLIIS CELLS on Google Earth, I find that volcanoes are correlated with the heat produced by rotary shear- as seen by fractures, slickensides, sheared slabs, and dragged river banks. The curvature of river paths and ancient dragged rocks makes it unmistakable that heat is produced in the CRUST by this continuous action. I am classifying these extrusions, mainly by their size of their surface expression and by the size of the Coriolis cells (diameters which are obvious on PHOTOGRAHED EARTH MAPS:
I. BASALT VENTS
A. Occurring along the BOUNDARY OF SMALL CORIOLIS CELLS - where there is rotation and shear caused by Coriolis Force for sufficient TIME, but seen readily in cells with a diameter less than the thickness of the Crust of the Earth.
B. Having a composition indicating that the cell has mainly rotated horizontally, but also having a movement vertically- indicating that the HEAT PRODUCED BY BRITTLE FRICTION OF SHEARING ROCK has augmented the temperature at the top of the Mantle, causing rise of the hotter lighter mass.
C. Positioning of the vents occurs on the outer circumference of the rotation, yielding a shear zone which is sharp- but whose width is on the order of 1/200th of the cell diameter.
D. Having a LIFE which depends on the magnitude of the cell (that is, the Diameter). The smallest cells have the shortest time of extrusion, such as less than 100 k.years for small vents (e.g. Sullivan’s Knoll, in UT).
The next type of vulcanism is larger and more violent, and I select the following:
II. RHYOLITIC OR DACITIC DOMES and Craters
A. Occurring at the intersection of two larger circular movements, where an opening is created by interference of the two circulations.
B. Composition is that of the Crust, that is, siliceous and not basaltic.
C. Positioning occurs at an intersection of a larger rotation with the one at the extrusion. This will mainly occur alongside a circular river path, e.g. Hackberry Mountain, AZ at the intersection of
Fossil and Verde Rivers.
D. Life of the extrusion is on the order of millions of years (considering the original CCW rotation and subsequent CW rotation while cooling of the primary mass, and development of rejuvenation coes at the edge of rotation), continuing until the rotation intersection is further away (building heat further to the east for the Hackberry case).
III. Next we will investigate the larger extrusions- REGIONAL VULCANISM, exemplified by the San Francisco Peaks, at Flagstaff, AZ, where the entity is still active (Sunset Crater, ca. 1080 A.D), and where there are multi-domes, composite extrusions, and satellite vents:
A. Occurring at the intersection or boundary of state-wide Coriolis cells, such as the boundary of the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range.
B. The composition is for all types of extrusions- rhyolite, basalt, and dacite;
C. Positioning is at the edge of a large feature, such as CP, and
D. Life is that associated with the entire rotation of CP- IN ITS PRESENT POSITION RELATIVE TO NEIGHBORING DEVELOPMENTS.A SPACE STRIKE can re-position the POLE AND EQUATOR, re-arranging all Coriolis circular presentations.
COMMENTS: 1. The large fault systems which have diverted portions of the Colorado River- ones at Pipe Springs and Havasu Falls- are continuing to the south and creating oppositely-moving thrusts which position the SF vulcanism and its associated cell rotation between the faults.
2. These large faults are occurring now, and evidently will create volcanism in the future- EVEN WHILE THE MAIN MAGMA COOLS. Sunset crater is the latest extrusion (REJUVENATION, CAUSING BY THE COUNTER-ROTATION WHEN COOLING OF THE MAIN MAGMA) occurring as a result of this action. COUNTER-ROTATION WHILE COOLING CREATES FRICTION AND SHEAR ON THE LEADING EDGE OF THE ORIGINAL MASS.
3. The composition of the magma, being so varied, indicates that the Mantle as well as the CRUST is involved. A closer view is shown below: Some enterprising field worker should now seek for entities which would confirm this correlation- slickensides, sheared concrete slabs, and fracture patterns paralleling the shown river valleys (indicating the rotation which is dragging the area undergoing vulcanism).
This is not the last category; there are several larger entities: SUPER VOLCANOES, SUBDUCTIVE (ROTATIONS OF CONTINENTS ONTO THEIR CONTINENTAL SHELVES) LINEAR ARRAYS OF VOLCANOES- SUCH AS THE CASCADES, AND FINALLY THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH THE EDGE OF THE QUADRANSPHERE- HAWAIIAN TYPE SHIELD EXTRUSIONS.
The Category IV is shown below for two of the SUPER VOLCANOES in the USA: Jemez Caldera and Yellowstone in Wyoming. I have posted Yellowstone in detail in an earlier Blog, so will now analyze Jemez Mts. or the violent extrusion of the Miocene to Pliocene, exemplified by the Bandolier Tuff at Las County, NM: NOTE the multiple number of conflicting cells displayed at the inflection in the Rocky Mt. chain- one of which is rotating in the same direction as a bordering one:
Yellowstone caldera and violent conflict at the border of several Coriolis cells is shown below:
Jemez Mountains or the VALLES, where I worked for the geothermal group, is shown below:
A. Occurring at the SE edge of the great COUPLET: B&R-CP, which is occupying parts of 5 states.
B. Age at least back to the Miocene, and by my correlation with the occurrence of extension starting in the Oligocene (post-Laramide), somewhat older.
C. Positioned by the orientation from N-S along the Rio Grande rift to westerly movement along the Colorado Plateau.
D. Life is expected to continue so long as CP is rotating CCW with the present Polar Axis and Equator.
Next to last is THE ARRAY OF ANDESITIC VOLCANOES displayed from Mt. Lassen, CA in the south to the Canadian border shown below. This is called subduction, but it is due to the rotation of part of the continent onto the continental shelf and returning towards the coast further with the curvature- sometimes creating collision as with the Olympic Mountains, WA- but mostly diving due to greater density under the NW states, to create a line of andesitic volcanoes about 100 miles from the coastline: Finally, there is the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount development, or HI-E, which is at the boundary of the NA QUADRANSPHERE, and which shows the coriolis rotation for 1/4 of the Globe. This is not to extrapolate to that which is occurring in the southern Hemisphere, since the mass imbalance there has resulted in India and Australia moving north-ward, and which shows few similarities with the northern hemisphere (except that shear is occurring at 40S similarly to that at 40N Latitude- at the termination of the Equatorial Bulge, EB).
This is further analyzed by looking at Transforms and how they develop south of the big island of Hawaii, below:
Sunday, December 6, 2009
This starts the next phase to explore the large B&R lateral fault, occurring along the Virgin River- which continues SW-ward until reaching the Valley of Fire, NV State Park. WE have already found laterally-striated etchings on SLICKENSIDES (which not only show the horizontal nature of the fault can be noted, but also the direction of movement, if CAT SCRATCHES OR TRACKS are found).
This fault system is due to the Coriolis Rotation of most of the state of NV and part of UT- west of the WASATCH LINE (the Great Basin, B&R). This fault system is generally parallel to I-15 freeway, where fortunately the road engineers have found the shear zone for freeway construction. Not to worry about much shear of the roadway, since the movement is on the order of only 1 mm/year, but there is a section near New Harmony, UT where the road bed is rumpled and sheared.
Photo below shows the major features surrounding the Great Basin or B&R province in NV and UT:
We have explored the Pine Valley Mountains SE region, where the gouge of the great lateral faulting surrounds I-15, and where Quartz Monzonite from PVM has been transported from the original laccolith to sites near the Freeway.
Further, we have found strange "Cat Tracks or Scratches" which indicate lateral movement of the Monzonite:
Below is a photo I caught, while hiking near the Babylon area (north of Virgin River, Sky Mt. Golf area), which those in the GEOLOGY CULTURE would readily ignore. The rotation and shear-fractures developed as a result of the nearby Leeds volcano rotating, while cooling, creating a sharp fracture front in the mesa above the shack, a seep for drainage behind the house, and cracks and fractures in the concrete slab and walls of the shack:
This week we will travel south of St. George, to view the nearest Coriolis cell (formed by the fractures creating the Santa Clara River) and further south, which will be the subject of another field investigation:
We will be looking for more evidence of the B&R shear and rotating cell along the Virgin River- in this case for slickensides on the cliffs of Bloomington Hill, rotating CCW as a Reactionary Cell to the westward thrust of B&R:
Homing in on Bloomington Hill,
I have laid the preliminaries for hikes in the Beaver Dam region, where one may access at CEDAR POCKET, I-15, NORTH ON A GRAVEL ROAD. This area exhibits several Coriolis rotations, because of the CW rotation of the great CW-moving lateral fault, proceeding from PVM towards the Valley of Fire State Park, NV. This is expanded, to show the REMARKABLY CONSISTENT NATURE OF CORIOLIS CELLS WHICH ARE CREATED NEXT TO A KNOWN LATERAL FAULT OF GREATER SIGNIFICANCE: CELLS ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE RIVER (EXPRESSED BY FRACTURES AND SLICKENSIDES, WHICH ACCOMPANY THE RIVER PATH) ROTATE CW (SAME AS THE B&R-SINKING), WHILE CELLS NEXT TO THIS (ONE REMOVED FROM THE PRIMARY ROTATION) ROTATE CCW (RISING). OUR FIRST DISCOVERY AND EXAMPLE OF THIS WAS THE GRASS VALLEY CELL OF ABOUT 30 KM DIAMETER, EXISTS AROUND COOLING (AND THEREFORE SINKING) AND CW-ROTATING, DYING VOLCANOES. FORTUITOUSLY, THE RIVER TURNS TO ALLOW THE MORE NW-ERLY CELL TO MATCH WITH ITS COUNTER-ROTATION, AND STILL FITS WITH THE RULE,BECAUSE OF SMALLER CELLS SEPARATING THE LARGER ONE FROM THE RIVER!