**SUMMARY: STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DYNAMICS for the NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT, Qsna, are determined by the GRAVITATIONAL REARRANGEMENT of the EARTH'S CRUST- RESULTING IN LATERAL THRUSTING, CORIOLIS ROTATION AND SHEAR, and formation of ANALEMMAS of many diameters (at least 10). THERE IS CONTINUAL SHIFTING as crustal MASS in the SOLAR SYSTEM SHIFTS with MOVEMENTS of the SUN, MOON, and GRAVITATIONAL WAVES. The MILANKOVITCH CYCLES of 25, 41, and 100 k.y. are part of this GRAVITATIONAL INFLUENCE (POLAR WOBBLE).**

**GRAVITATION produces many HARMONICS, and these explain many interactions of EARTH, MOON, PLANETS, and SUN. This was first noticed in the pattern of LIFE EXTINCTIONS: 256 m.y. PTr MARINE FOSSILS, 64 m.y. KT disappearance of dinosaurs, and 16 m.y. flood basalt “waves”. This fits with the BINARY THEOREM, which shows that gravitationally-influenced events are in a pattern: 2 m.y, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2018, and 4.096 b.y. (where space and time are related, as shown by Milankovitch). Astronomers are continually adjusting the capture of the moon date (down to 4.3 b.y. now), such that it approaches the 4.096 billion years predicted by the BINARY THEOREM. When noticing that the diameters, E-W, of North America, the upper part of SA, and Australia are all near 4096 km, it became apparent that this represented a 1 mm/yr expansion of the land mass- as they were pulled outwardly and upwardly by the MOON. This calculates NOT 1.024, as I expected, but an “EVEN” number, fitting with the clever arrangement of the EARTH’S CIRCUMFERENCE by international agreement that a centimeter was a part of the distance of EQUATOR to POLES. Continuing, Milankovitch found that the influence of Venus and other solar masses was such as to cause the POLAR WOBBLE to exhibit cycles of 41 k.y. (probably 40.96 due to calculation inaccuracies), and 100 k.y. (102,400?) elliptical cycles. I am expecting errors in this theorem of near 4%, since the fossil disappearances, by radioactivity dating, are within this imprecision, as compared to those predicted by the BINARY THEOREM (64 vs. 65m.y. and 256 vs. 251 m.y from the fossil record). These can be determined by thermal (Sun or radioactivity), electrical-magnetic, and extra-solar influenced EVENTS. THE MOON fits this gravitational pattern, with its separation of near 409,600 km from EARTH (6% FROM 384,400km). Moon displays its influence on MOUNDS or Protrusions in a 12-13 unit pattern, within ELLIPSES which are in a pattern of lateral/tilted ratio of 1.6, similar to that of the ORBITS of earth/Venus.**

**GRAND CANYON'S BRIGHT ANGEL "CANYON WITHIN A RISE" SHOWS THE RESULTS OF THE 1.096 BILLION YEAR FRAGMENTATION OF THE CRUST, WHERE THE great UNCONFORMITY IS EXHIBITED. GEOLOGISTS HAVE CONFIRMED THAT THE UNKAR AND CHUAR GROUPS have been dated no later than 1.1 billion years. Above that stratigraphic level exists the CAMBRIAN, and this is the reason for it:****ELEVATION of CONTINENTS due to NET CHANGE of EROSION vs. GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION: The idea of ISOSTASY is that continents rebound, according to their mass, as erosion transpires. Similar to a U-TUBE or MANOMETER, as a load is removed, the column adjusts to result in EQUILIBRIUM between two FLUIDS (or plastic masses) which are in contact (or which are connected hydraulically). This is a theory, which GEOLOGY has promulgated, but one which may be better understood from the standpoint of the FORCE causing elevation. I have found that the MOON-SUN DUO attracts the EARTH, such as to cause continents to rise since capture of the Moon by earth (4096 km laterally in 4.096 billion years) This resulted from gravitational attraction (TIDAL) of the CRUST by the moon, as it moved overhead- forming at most 12-13 bulges under the periodic influence of the FULL MOON. The moon offsets the sun ONLY PART of the time- a few days each month- lifting and moving laterally these masses. There are only 6 CONTINENTS remaining, since 6 others have been fragmented by the FORBIDDEN GRAVITATIONAL ZONES: East and West Indies, Aleutian Islands, NW Passage, Greenland-Iceland, and Africa (in progress). An important question is the association of rise of continents with the lateral enlargement. This information varies with the continent, but for the United States, USA, it is 2500 feet AVERAGED, or 762 meters. The elevation is larger, when the entire continent is considered, since Canada and Mexico are generally more mountainous. A CONTINENT’S AVERAGE ELEVATION may be used as an indication of INSTABILITY of the CRUST: Since uplifts, sinks, and rotation of rising features depends upon GRAVITATIONAL RE-ARRANGEMENT, we may use this measurement to relate continents to each other. I expect that the average elevation will be 1.024 km (from the BINARY THEOREM), and the literature reveals that this is an upper limit- since the highest average elevation in Asia is 840 meters. The lowest average is for Australian (330 m), where the continent is mostly desert NOW, indicating that there is little erosion from rain. This measurement yields a relative indication of the amount of mass which has been ejected from individual continents by the 1.024 b.y. GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION. Australia is now the prime target, and we will appraise the removal of crustal surface there. Australia is a large ANALEMMA, and we will assume that the eastern TILTED SINK has an overall elevation that matches the western desert - yielding an average of 330 meters. Of course, there are many mountains in the east, and this yields regional circular features; the wstern desert is mostly an AXIAL ROTATION (SIMILAR TO THE COLORADO PLATEAU), and this will be the guide to this mostly PreCambrian province. In short, the continent is both RISING and ENLARGING with TIME, and this can be checked with calculations involving EARTH TIDES- which are 10.24 long term for the SUN, and 20.48 mm/year, for the MOON. When considering why the Pacific Ocean is shrinking, it is because of the addition of the two tidal movements: 10.24 +20.48= 30.72 mm/year. This is about an inch yearly, and can be checked by measurement of the Asiatic arcuate coastline- China, convex to the east- as it moves easterly (by GPS). The average for all continents, from the literature, is 840 meters elevation. This magnitude has considerable imprecision, but is within 18% of 1024 m. (predicted by the BINARY THEOREM). This is an unacceptably large error, and I will make my own assessment. We are averaging Asia, where the elevation is unusually large (due to both tides of SUN and Moon pulling together), and Australia may be the continent to consider to be uninfluenced by adjacent landmasses. The literature reports it as: 330 meters- NOT near the 1024 meter speculation. Asia is much more complicated, and it has an average of 950 m. (7% difference)- and it is greatly influenced by the 256 m.y. EVENT of the SHOVE of India to the north, creating the Himalayas. None of these continents have an elevation greater than 1024m, and we should compare the average depth of the oceans, to determine whether there are offsetting depths which are not proportional to the density differences between basaltic oceanic crust and siliceous continental rocks. The average density of the contrasting regimes are: 4.0 vs. 2.5 gm/cc, at the shallowest rocks. This fits with the 1.6 ratio of ANALEMMAS CCW /CW diameters, BUT NOT with the depth of water/elevation of continents= 2000/840m = 2.38. 1250 meters LAND ELEVATION is required for the 1.6 RATIO! A possible way out of this dilemma occurs via the 1.024 billion year GREAT UNCONFORMITY, exhibited in the GRAND CANYON. There is quite a bit of STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION MISSING there, and geologists don’t know what to do about this! It appears that the CRUST was “SCALPED”, sending a lot of continental crust into the oceans (into SPACE?). THE OCEANS ARE UNUSUALLY DEEP, so that the sediments are not there. However, the continental shelves may account for this missing sediment. I have noticed that the continents move away (vacate) shelves, and this probably accounts for 5% of the continental mass. If so, 2000/922 meters= 2.17 still does not approach 1.6 sufficiently! It appears that mass was flung into space- possibly towards Venus, to create its unusual attitude towards the sun. It is retrograde (reverse to earth’s path), and its density is near that of earth- indicating that it has had a collision to disrupt it from other planets’ behavior. It is unusually hot, indicating that it has not only a GREENHOUSE effect, but that it exudes HEAT from GRAVITATIONAL FRICTION. Altogether, it appears to have been influenced by EARTH- probably by interaction- yielding a density very close to that of earth (5.24 vs. 5.5 gm/cc for EARTH. My conclusion is that EARTH has had a loss of mass, fairly definitely related to the GREAT UNCONFORMITY, and that it relates to GRAVITATIONAL DISRUPTION in every way I can measure it, EXCEPT for the LOSS of continental elevation.**ABOVE PHOTO SHOWS HOW DISRUPTION OF AN ANTICLINE CREATES "GOUGE" OF RED MT, CREATING SEPARATION OF THE RESULTING RISE (LIKE GRAVEL KICKED UP WHEN MAKING A SHARP TURN TO THE LEFT), AND DIPPING BEDS OF SANDSTONE - UP TO THE RIGHT! BELOW GOOGLE PHOTO SHOWS HOW DISRUPTION OCCURRED IN THE GRAND CANYON creating the GREAT UNCONFORMITY!

**This scenario predicts that Australia can be brought back to PreCambrian times, using the expected depositional and GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION TIMES *. At the 1.024 billion year AGE, the extension of Australia would have been 3.072 billion mm, wide, with 1024 meters elevation. The 330 meters measured NOW is 694 meters short of that calculated for the 1.024 billion year AGE; HENCE there have been ALMOST 1 km of the stratigraphic column lost. This would Account for the ancient AGE of the western half of Australia, where some of the oldest rocks have been found (> 3 billion year age). Assuming that the eastern half- where the younger and TILTED COLUMN exists- has the same average elevation of 330 meters as does the western half, then the lost 694 meters represents 1388 million years. If this is subtracted from the measured ages of 2.3 b.y. (younger 2 b.y. outcrops have been found) from fossils and rocks, this would represent an AGE of 1,088 million years. This is the approximate AGE at which the 1.024 billion year EVENT OCCURRED! Recall that I expect an error of 4%, for all calculations, using the variation between the BINARY THEOREM and radioactivity-dated fossil extinctions. What have we confirmed here? This is no proof, but events are: 1. INDICATING the BINARY THEOREM, where GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION eliminates LIFE, PART of the STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN, and reverses normal earth tides; 2. Agreeing that CRUSTAL DEPOSITS HAVE DISAPPEARED- indicating that they may have been ejected into SPACE, possibly into the orbit of Venus, where they were incorporated (Venus has no moons); and, 3. Confirming that the 10.24, 20.48, and 30.72 mm/yr EARTH TIDES are in the ball park, for practical use.**

***NOTE: The GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION SCENARIO requires that we find a FLAT-and-LEVEL ROCK FORMATION, which has survived the 1.024 billion year destruction, in order to disprove the episode. It is not enough to find an outcrop which has been “saved” in a graben or other protected environment. The grand canyon 1.1 b.y. deposit is in a tilted position, and appears to remain because it has apparently dropped into the crevasse while the several m.y. episodes occurred. I have found that these fragmentations occur over several million years, as seen in the transition of type of sedimentary deposits found from PTr to the Triassic Chinle petrified wood much higher in the stratigraphic column (3-5 m.y. later). I have found that there are many outcrops of 1.7 b.y. metasediments remaining in AZ and NM, and I had a ranch which exhibited these vertically-oriented rocks. The grain of the rocks was generally upward, and this is not necessarily the same as the original bedding planes. It merely indicates that the compression was lateral- where the grain is perpendicular to the direction of shove. How is it that some older rock was not “scalped” during the destruction? The fact of their appearance at the surface tells us that there has been NO deposition, and that likely they were partially planed by the destruction- leaving the part that was not “shaved”. These metasediments occur in a belt from Minnesota to Mexico, as shown in a plan view below. Notice that the trend is arcuate, indicating that the influence of GRAVITATION was similar to now. We cannot tell if the orientation occurred contemporaneously with their uplift, and it might have been imposed on the chain later (a moving feature describes the time interval of the arc, and the AGE of the event may be calculated by: diameter, in km/10.24 km/m.y. for arcs convex to the east (oppositely-oriented arcs have 20 km/m.y. TIDAL MOVEMENTS to the west). An EVENT which might be helpful is the occurrence of an uplift or intrusion- such as the Dewey Batholith- which rose after the 1.024 b.y. EVENT. THIS CASE occurs as a result of the ISOSTASY transpiring after the opening in the crust (and removal of overburden) has occurred. This will be an indicator of the longevity of the EVENT- CREATING UPLIFTS long after the original GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION. Notice that the trend is convex to the east for the cross-continent outcrops, and the AGE is greater than 10,000km/10 km/m.y. or > 1 b.y:**

**AZ Texas GULCH, which I have explored (resistivity of the SUBSURFACE) for water in granite- finding 7 GPM in fractures separated 250 meters apart (traced as shown on the following GOOGLE EARTH PHOTO) is shown below:**

**AZ PC MOUNTAINS, WHICH CONSIST of 1.7 b.y. outcrops, with VERTICAL FRACTURES (GRAIN, PERPENDICULAR to LATERAL STRESS DIRECTION):**

**THE CALCULATIONS ABOUT THE LINEAR FAULT INDICATE THAT THE OLDER ARC HAS AN AGE OF 578 m.y. THIS IS NOT CORRECT for AGE of OUTCROPS (but may indicate a later EVENT TIME, or INTERVAL), AND RELATES AGAIN, THAT AGE MUST NOT BE CALCULATED AT OR NEAR A SOLAR VS. LUNAR LINEAR; THE FEATURE CHANGES SO RAPIDLY ON GOOGLE EARTH- from left to right- THAT THERE IS GREAT PERSONAL ERROR IN MEASURING AND CALCULATING THE AGE (BECAUSE OF THE GREAT CHANGES FOR SMALL SEPARATIONS OF ARCS). HOWEVER, THE ARC TO THE WEST YIELDS AN AGE OF KT- THE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY. GEOLOGISTS RELATE THAT THE AGE OF THE DEWEY BATHOLITH IS CRETACEOUS IN AGE, AND THIS FARTHER-FROM-THE-LINEAR ARC POSSIBLY IS CORRECT. I USED THE AVERAGE OF ALL MY previous FINDINGS- for CONVEX to the EAST FEATURES- TO USE THE DIVISOR OF 10.24KM/M.Y., AND ONE COULD USE THE SMALLEST MEASUREMENT OF 3.072KM/M.Y. TO CALCULATE AN ADJUSTED AGE OF 10.24/3.072 X 578m.y.= 1.926 m.y. (13% error), but STATISTICALLY, I cannot justify it.**

**TAKING ANOTHER PART OF THE AZ PC, ALONG 1-17 and Cordes Lakes, we see that the LATERAL FAULTS CALCULATE LESS THAN 1 m.y.; I HAVE WORKED THIS AREA CONSIDERABLY, and know that the rocks are of 1.7 m.y. AGE. WE HAVE TO CONCLUDE THT THIS TECHNIQUE IS NOT SENSITIVE ENOUGH FOR THESE LARGE DIAMETER ARCS TO BE USED FOR AGE CALCULALTIONS**.

**AT THE I-17 FREEWAY, BLACK CANYON CITY, OUTCROPS ARE PRE-CAMBRIAN, AND PRESENT ANOTHER CASE OF ARC DIAMETER YIELDING A TIME INTERVAL LESS THAN THE SURROUNDING ROCKS. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THIS IS CORRECT, WITH THE SHEAR AND ROTATION OCCURRING IN PALEOZOIC TIME. THIS CAN BE CHECKED VIA DATING OF OUTCROPS, BUT THE ONLY ONES I FOUND WERE CRETACEOUS RED GRAVELS (ATOP Pc) AND TERIARY EXTRUSIONS.**

**SCENARIO for 1.024 billion year GRAVITATIONAL DISRUPTION, in Qsna, NORTH AMERICAN QUADRANSPHERE: Referring to the map of PRECAMBRIAN OUTCROPS, there is a pattern to the arcuate remains of rock (investigated by GEOLOGISTS- using radioactivity dating). The pattern has the oldest outcrops centered in the mid-continent, with successively younger rocks at the edges, finally exhibiting the youngest of the PC along the coast. The 2.5 b.y. outcrops (widely discontinuous in space) are in an elliptical arrangement, as are those on Greenland. The 1.1 b.y. outcrops form an ELLIPSE also, probably due to the elliptically-arranged Qsna; since little information is available from the oceans- except for geology of islands- there may be BIAS by myself, as to interpretation. An exception to this AGE ARRANGEMENT is that of the Yavapai complex- which lies on the southern border- and which has 1.7 b.y. rocks in an arcuate (NOT ELLIPTICAL) REMAINDER. Inside of this lies the younger 1.1+b.y. CHURCHILL ring-shaped wave of rocks. All of this is important because of the WAVE NATURE of GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION (also, normal rings of outcrops expand with time- making successively wider diameter arcuate features in “jerks“ or episodes). This might be illustrated by concentric circles, or ELLIPSES (always with a part of the arc missing- through which a smaller arc develops later). The circles represent “RIPPLES” or waves spreading outwardly, so that the larger waves are older, and smaller (younger) ripples develop by creation from GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTIONS-REPULSIONS. THIS SCENARIO suggests that there was an episode in the Mid-continent (older) which formed an uplift followed by successively younger events. These exhibit ELLIPSES of outcrops (mountain remains) which center in the middle of the continent, and which instigate later and younger ellipses or ARCS. You should remark at this point: “but the older normally are in rings at the larger diameters; this is reverse to that!”. True, and this is illustrated by the Byam Martin Island in the NW passage, where the youngest is interjected into the older and wider NW Passage-fragmented islands. “Within a rise, there exists a sink, and within this sink there exists another rise” is my finding for normal outcrops. Remember that a volcano erupts within a SINK, and within the volcanic uplift, there is a CRATER- within which forms a resurgent DOME, and in that dome exists a pond or lake, etc. The Grand Canyon is the sink, junctioning which there is the BRIGHT ANGEL creek; this represents the center of the Kaibab rise- which is split by the LINEAR of the NNE-trending Bright Angel canyon. Adjacent to this is the graben which contains the “saved” 1.1 b.y. sedimentary layers; this graben allowed sinking of the otherwise removed (scraped) rock, lost in the 1.024 b.y. GREAT UNCONFORMITY or CRUSTAL SCRAPING of Precambrian rock. This location is surrounded to the south by the older 1.7 b.y. Yavapai Series, and represents the LOSS to the SINK- which is surrounded by a ring-shaped wave or RISE. This succession of ring-shaped WAVES is part of a normal ANALEMMA, containing an UPLIFT and a TILTED SINK (within an ELLIPSE). The ellipse has 12-13 individual mounds, which are placed according to the 12-13 FULL MOON CYCLE related to the gravitational arrangement of mass by attraction of the EARTH’S CRUST to the MOON-SUN Gravitational pull. Where is the other part of the ANALEMMA? It occurs inside the ellipse also- notice the fragmented NE, the portion of Canada near the oldest CRATON on earth- that of the 4 b.y.+ stable low mound on the NE side of the ellipse of Qsna.**

**THE ICE AGE IS RELATED TO THE TIME INTERVAL SHOWN IN THE PHOTO BELOW. THIS FEATURE WAS INITIATED AT THE TIME OF THE "SUPPOSED" ELTANIN EVENT. THIS HAS BEEN INVESTIGATED BY GEOLOGISTS AS A METEOR STRIKE IN THE SOUTHERN OCEAN. I HAVE FOUND THAT ELTANIN OCCURRED IN RESPONSE TO THE INTERIM BETWEEN THE 4 AND 1 M.Y. GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATIONS, AND CREATED COOLING (ICE) VIA EXTENSION OF THE ELLIPTICAL PATH OF THE EARTH. IT TERMINATED AT PENN COVE, WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA AT 15,625 YEARS AGO-MAKING A TURN OF THE LAST ICE LOBE TOWARDS THE WEST. IN RESPONSE, THERE OCCURRED MIMA MOUNDS NEAR MY SUMMER HOME, ON LAND, AND IN THE SARATOGA PASSAGE- AS SIMILAR-SIZED DIFFRACTION PATTERNS OF SUB-SEA MOUNDS. NOW WE SEE THAT IT "SQUEEZED" MINGUS AND WOODCHUTE MOUNTAINS (VOLCANOES) UPWARD VIA OPPOSING LINAR AND SOLAR TIDES. I NOW BELIEVE THE SQUEEZING PRODUCED THE MOUNDS AND DIFFRACTION PATTERNS:****A CLUE TO CONFLICT IN LUNAR AND SOLAR TIDES (CAUSING SQUEEZING, OR OPPOSITELY, CANYON OPENING) IS THE TRAPEZOIDAL ARRANGEMENT OF MILANKOVITCH AXIAL AND ELLIPTICAL DISPLAYS OF ROCK OUTCROPS. ABOVE (CLICK FOR MAGNIFYING) IS SHOWN HOW THE VERDE RIVER- IN PLIOCENE VERDE FORMATION- FORMS LINEARS. THESE FORM WHENEVER THERE IS SHEAR STRESS, LATER REVERSING OVER ADJACENT LINEAR PATHS. I LIVED IN THE COTTONWOOD, AZ AREA 18 YEARS, AND ALWAYS WONDERED HOW VOLCANOS FORMED ON TOP OF A NARROW RIDGE (YOU COULD SEE BOTH PRESCOTT AND VERDE VALLEYS AT THE TOP OF THE RIDGE). THE SCARP WAS SO STEEP THAT LOGGERS COULD CUT PONDEROSA PINES AND SLIDE THEM DOWN THE SCARP INTO THE MINING TOWN OF JEROME (HENCE the name WOODCHUTE): ABOVE IS AN ATMOSPHERIC ANALEMMA (LARGE AXIAL AND SMALLER CW PRECESSIONAL CELLS), WHICH DEMONSTRATES THAT THE SAME MILANKOVITCH CYCLES OCCUR IN CLOUDS AS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH (it also occurs in LOOP CURRENTS in the GULF of MEXICO).****GREENLAND IS IN A TRAPEZOIDAL BLOCK OF CRUST, AND THIS INDICATES THAT IT HAS A HISTORY OF REVERSED SHEAR (FROM SOLAR VS LUNAR OFFSETTING). THIS PHOTO SHOWS THAT IT IS EXPANDING NORTHWARD- CREATING ITS OWN WASATCH LINE. IT BORDERS THE BASIN AND RANGE OF THE MID-ARCTIC RANGES (LOMONOTOV RIDGE and others):****EQUINOX SHIFT of 3 degrees (21.5 to 24.5?) is measured between the GAKKEL and LOMOMOTOV RIDGES for the TIME INTERVAL of 41 m.y.; SINCE GAKKEL SPREADING RIDGE has HEAT EMISSIONS, this is PROBABLY the AGE also. I have found this TIME INTERVAL in many locations: the ALEUTIANS, CENTRAL AMERICA, OLYMPIC MTS, WA, and now at the CRITICAL LOCATION- the NORTH POLE!****NOTE: Although the measured difference in elevation between POLAR and EQUATORIAL DIAMETERS is about 26 km (2/10th %), the BINARY THEOREM predicts that the PEAR-SHAPED BULGE has a 40,960 km circumference compared to 40,000 km (2.4% difference). This can be measured or calculated via the separation of major transforms, where there is 7.2 degrees (1/50th of 360 degrees) in the Northern PACIFIC Ocean. This is equivalent to 432 nautical miles, or 800 km, (x 1.85185, and 50 x 800= 40K) and is the first clue that the Earth resonates at critical portions of the circumference. However, if the BT is correct, the separation in the South PACIFIC will be 7.3 degrees (2.7%). The events shown in my analyses occurred at 40 and 40.96 m.y.- a difference of 2.4%. The Mendocino TRANSFORM leads to the 40-41 m.y. Kimmei seamount at the major inflection in the North PACIFIC; other indications occur at the ALEUTIAN SPIRAL, the Olympic Mts. slide over the WA Puget Sound area, and the Central American curlicue. This larger TIME yields a larger bulge circumference of 40,960 km, and the imprecise separation of S. PACIFIC transforms is about 7.4 degrees (2.78% difference). The imprecision occurs with the lack of location of the bulge. There is quite a variation of transform separation, and this is due to the unknown center of BULGE location. The Atlantic Ocean gives NO hint of a bulge there, and most TRANSFORMS are more narrowly separated.****ABOVE GOOGLE PHOTO OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN SHOWS THAT THE ISLANDS REPRESENT RISES OF THE CRUST AND A BULGE IN THE CIRCUMFERENCE. THIS IS TO BE EXPECTED FOR THE EQUATOR, AND I HAVE ISOLATED THE PORTION SOUTH OF IT. I MEASURED AND CONTOURED THE GRID SPACING GREATER THAN NORMAL (800 KM REPRESENTS NORMAL IN THE NORTH PACIFIC- 7.2 DEGREES OF LONGITUDE BETWEEN MAJOR TRANSFORMS) TO FIND A BULGE OTHER THAN THE EQUATORIAL CENTRIFUGAL "SLING". ANYTHING WITH 7.3 DEGREES OR GREATER IS A BULGE. FINDING A RAISED PATCH, I MEASURED THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF EARTH, USING GOOGLE DISTANCE TOOL. IT MUST BE DONE IN 2 PARTS- USING THE MIDPOINT IIN AFRICA AS THE HALF. INTERESTINGLY, THE MIDPOINT OCCURS ALONG THE AFRICAN RIFT- INDICATING THAT IT IS SPREADING SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH MOVEMENT OF THE ARC OF ISLANDS GOING WEST AT A RATE OF 20.48 MM/YR (SINCE KT). NOTICE THAT THE EAST PART OF THE RISE IS A LINEAR DIVIDER, AND THE ARCUATE PORTION IS AN EXPANDING ARC- MOVING WESTWARD. I WILL CALCULATE WHETHER THE ANALEMMA HAS BEEN INTRODUCED SINCE 41 M.Y.- THE AGE OF RE-0RIENTATION OF THE EQUINOX, BY 3 DEGREES OR MORE. South Pacific PEAR BULGE continued: The measurements of the bulge south of the Equator show that a half global circumference is 20,030 km. This is not accurate within 2 km, because of the inaccuracy of my manipulation of the measurement tool. I will use the 40,082 km measurement from the literature, since this is the accepted equatorial BULGE circumference. This results in an 878 km difference (4096- 4008.2 km) from the BINARY THEOREM prediction, or 878/2 pi km= 139.7 km TOTAL extra for the GLOBAL RADIUS, IF the theorem were correct for the time interval beforehand. ASSUMING that this is distributed equally for both the South Pacific and the AFRICA RIFT (AN OPENING WITHIN a RISE), then there is 139.7/20.48 km/m.y. = 6.82 m.y. time of uplift and split of the AFRICAN RIFT. This is PREVIOUS to the ICE AGE or ELTANIN EVENT (2 m.y.). There is one “fly in the ointment” due to the CURVATURE of the Island chain having a calculated KT AGE (64 m.y.). We will continue, using the assumption that the uplift of islands has continued since KT, and that the illustrated PEAR-SHAPED bulge has been forming more recently (DURING the 8 m.y. INTERIM BETWEEN 4 and 16 m.y. FRAGMENTATIONS). What then has happened to the extra 878 km of global bulge (greater than the equatorial bulge)? This represents a radial REDUCTION or SHORTENING of 439 km, or 1% of the EARTH’S CIRCUMFERENCE. Other than compaction by loss of CENTRFUGAL FORCE, most GRAVITATIONAL FEATURES result in**As to the measurement of the degrees of separation of the Gakkel and Lomonotov Ridges, where POLAR PRECESSIONAL SHIFT is indicated, there is significant variation of the Separation of the two ridges. I believe that these may be used as a RECORD of precessional shift through time. A graph could be made of the distance or degrees separation between the two ridges, provided one starts at the south and proceeds to the north for 12-13 incidents. This would be equivalent to the annul cycle of full moons- where there occur 12 in years with succeeding 13 full moons. There is an expected error of 1/12 for this method, since the procedure occurs for the average of FULL MOONS/YEAR. On the accompanying Google earth photo, there are shown 3 with 3 degrees and 1 with 4 degrees. This emphasizes the inaccuracy of the method. This entire analysis depends upon the relation of the RATIO of 41 m.y. precessional/2 m.y. elliptical events= 21.5, the expected original tilt of the equinox (EQUAL LIGHT days) before the resonance occurred. A separate study must be made to determine the occurrence of the 2 m.y. ICE AGE in relation to the 41 m.y. precessional shift.*INCREASE*of the earth diameter: 1. Capture of the moon results in TIDAL FRICTION, or slowing of earth and subsequent expansion of the orbit about the sun (with increase of earth diameter- due to less centrifugal force); 2. Moon separation increases, yielding reduced tides and less slowing of the earth; and, 3. Earth moves further from Venus, yielding smaller interference. We are left with the conclusion that alternatively, compaction vs. mass ejection results in a reduced (from 40,960 km) EARTH CIRCUMFERENCE. After reflection, the likely occurrence of the 40,960 km BULGE came at the time of MOON CAPTURE. Then the tidal friction gradually moved the earth outwardly from the sun- decreasing its velocity, and ENLARGING the WHOLE EARTH DIAMETER. SIMULTANEOUSLY, the centrifugal force decreased- decreasing the bulge diameter. The calculated rate of decrease of the diameter at the EQUATOR is: 878/40,960/Pi km= 2.14 x pi%, or roughly 2 km for each 10Kkm of diameter. This is 878 km/4096 million years, or 214 km/k.y. This is very fast indeed, but probably NOT LINEAR (occurring mostly in the years POST-CAPTURE!). Extrapolating EARTH’S SPIN RATE BACKWARDLY (PAST BEHAVIOR), this would result in an increase of the circumference of the bulge from 40,080 to 4096 x .214 km/m.y.= 876.5 km + 40,080= 40,965.5 km. I will check the literature, to find the expected decrease of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE for the early days of the EARTH. IT HAS BEEN REPORTED THAT THE LATE HEAVY BOMBSRDMENT of the MOON OCCURRED at an AGE of 3.8 billion years. We need to find a reference to the AGE of 1.014 b.y.! IT WILL LOOK SOMETHING LIKE THE CRATER SHOWN ON THE GAGARIN PHOTO- WHICH HAS A DIAMETER OF 265 KM. THE EXPANSION OF CRATERS ON THE MOON WILL HAVE A MAGNITUDE OF 1/80TH OF THOSE INFLICTED BY THE MOON ON EARTH, SINCE THE MASS (WHICH IS PROPORTIONAL TO- DETERMINES- TIDAL FORCE) IS .0123 TIMES THAT OF EARTH. THE CALCULATION IS: TIDAL MOVEMENT, OR EXPANSION = 20.48 X .0123= .2519 KM/M.Y. WE ARE LOOKING FOR A CRATER WITH A DIAMETER OF 1024 m.y. x .2519= 257.9 km. You can remember the multiplier better by using 1/.2519= 4 approximately. The literature is focused on the LAST GREAT BOMBARDMENT, but some photo may have the 256 km crater. I USE THE SMALLER NUMBER 256 m.y. (TIME IS RELATED TO SPATIAL DIMENSIONS, AS SHOWN BY MILANKOVITCH), SINCE IT OCCURS IN THE BINARY THEOREM (AN IMPORTANT DATE, SINCE IT IS THAT OF THE PTr EXTINCTION (not the PTr extension). MY ERRORS ARE IN THIS REALM- THAT OF 4% OR LESS. GAGARIN CRATER IS COMPARED TO D'ELBARRE CRATER OF 248 KM DIAMETER; THIS CAN BE CHECKED FOR ITS PECULIARITY AS AN EXPANDING CIRCLE, TO SHOW THAT IT IS ENLARGING WITH TIME. WHEN THERE ARE "RINGS" WITHIN THE LARGER CIRCLE, THIS SHOWS THAT IT IS ENLARGING, AND THAT IT IS AN EARTH-TIDE-INFLUENCED FEATURE. ON EARTH, THE RINGS EXPAND AT A RATE OF 20.48 KM/M.Y., BUT ON MOON THEY HAVE A MUCH REDUCED EXPANSION (THEY ARE A RESULT OF A MUCH SMALLER MASS OF THE MOON). ABOVE IS THE WEBB CRATER, AND BELOW IS THE GAGARIN EXPANSION:**COMPARE ABOVE PHOTOS WITH THE SMALLER 248 KM D'ALEMBARE CRATER. WE SEARCH FOR A 256 KM CRATER, AND FIND 2 OTHERS SURROUNDING THIS WIDTH CRATER. POSSIBLY BOTH ARE NOT WHAT WE SEEK, BUT THIS IS A START TO FIND THE MASS EJECTED FROM EARTH IN THE 1.024 b.y. GREAT UNCONFORMITY (1024 m.y. X .252= 258 m.y.,SHOWN IN THE GAND CANYON, AS A MISSING HALF BILLION YEARS OF DEPOSITION).****The earth has endured several destructive episodes, as shown in the FOSSIL RECORD. The 64 m.y. KT and 256 m.y. PTr die-offs have been well reported by geologists, but the 41 m.y. EVENT has hardly been noticed. It is shown in the Kimmei Seamount in the North Pacific, and I have discovered it in the separation of the Lomonotov and Gakkel ridges, in the AGE of the Central American curlicue, and the shove of Eocene sedimentary rocks onto the Olympic Peninsula (Mountains), WA. This feature is important in the DYNAMICS of the EARTH, since in all the cases listed above there was (and still exists) GEOTHERMAL ACTIVITY and major movements of the CRUST. Notice that: 40 m.y. x 1.6= 64 m.y. or alternatively 40.96 m.y. x 1.6= 65.5 m.y, the age of KT as measured by radioactivity dating. These are from the BINARY THEOREM, where the series runs: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256m.y. etc. This series indicates that with less than 4% error, there are destructive events at multiples of 4 (4, 16, 32, 64, 256, etc to 1024 m.y.- the AGE of the GREAT UNCONFORMITY, noticed in the Grand Canyon, as a missing layer of crust of at least a half billion years of deposition and 2048, and 4096 million- the age of capture of the MOON). I HAVE ENDEAVORED to find which (40 or 40.96) is formulated by the GRAVITATIONAL INFLUENCE of the solar system, and I have measured both in OUTCROPS SHEAR CIRCLES. Hence I have left it to future work to find the correct magnitude, while realizing that there is only 2.4% difference between the two numbers. This introduction is illustrated by the occurrence of the 41 m.y. separation, of a 3 degree/360 circumference (40.96 m.y.) between the GAKKEL and Lomonotov RIDGES, and that this represents the change of the EQUINOXIAL ANGLE- as shown by the RATIO of 41m.y./2m/y. associated event of the Eltanin Event (a 20.5 degree precessional angle, now changed to 23.5 at the TROPIC of CANCER). There is now an association of three events: 1. 41 m.y. shift of ridges, extrusion of Kimmei seamount, and 2. Central America CURLICUE with 2 m.y. ELTANIN (start of the ice age), and 3. the shift of the POLAR PRECESSIONAL ANGLE. This is all shown on the Google Earth Arctic presentation:****ABOVE GOOGLE PHOTO SHOWS THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT, AS IT DEFORMS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF LUNAR and SOLAR TIDES. THIS IS AN ON-GOING PROCESS, and the ANALEMMA - CONSISTING OF A CW SINK IN NE CANADA, AND A CCW RISE FOR THE REST OF THE ELLIPSE- HAS A RATIO OF DIAMETERS OF 1.6. GETTING THIS ENTITY ON SUCH A LARGE SCALE REQUIRES THAT EVEN THE SMALLEST BLACKENED BLIPS, OR RIVER VALLEYS AND COASTAL BOUNDARIES BE CONSIDERED. CONSEQUENTLY, THE MAR- WITH ONLY VAGUE SEDIMENTED PATCHES- IS GREATLY IN ERROR, BUT MUST BE CONSIDERED AS A REFERENCE. THIS PHOTO IS INTRODUCED AS A START TO DETERMINING WHETHER MY ANALYSIS OF THE 1.024 B.Y. EVENT IS "IN THE BALL PARK". NOTICE THAT THIS INCORPORATES THE CANADIAN SHIELD (CRATON), AND IS AN INTRODUCTION TO DETERMINING WHY IT REMAINS, AND WHETHER IT WAS "SCRAPED" BY THE 1.024 B.Y. PRECAMBRIAN DESTRUCTION AND LOSS OF THE GREAT UNCONFORITY FOUND IN THE GRAND CANYON (AND WHETHER MY "ELLIPTICAL RINGS" FORMULATION IS CORRECT).****Separation of Moon from Earth with TIME The distance between EARTH and MOON is 384,400 km, and this INCREASES with time (due to earth slowing and increasing its distance from the sun). The measured rate established by GPS reflector placed on the moon surface is 38 mm/year increase. Ignoring measurement imprecision, this yields a RATIO of 10,115, which is approximately the magnitude of the years calculated from the SOUTH POLE of the Moon Crater: AGE = 2500 km/.2519 km/m.y. (established by 20.48 x .0123 mass ratio) INACCURATE AGE = 9924.57 m.y. - which is much older than the earth! It is known from many measurements, that Moon is no older than 4.6 b.y. This can be a re-worked CALCULATION, using the obvious assumption of LINEAR CHANGE with TIME, with the following procedure: a. Part of the linear change can be assumed to be correct, since that part is occurring NOW; b. An earlier part of the movement is much faster, and can be first-approximated by use of the BINARY THEOREM, since it has proven to be unusually prescient about all that I have calculated for earth; c. It has been calculated from Moon data that there was a LATE HEAVY BOMBARDMENT at the time of 3.8 b.y.; d. (20.48 x .2519 km/my), or 5.159 km/my x (4096- 3800 m.y.) = 296 m.y. x 5.159= 1527 km; e. 2500 km s. pole crater- 1527 km= 972.96 km difference, from boundary (3.8b.y) part. The RATIO of later/earlier = 2500/1527 km= 1.6372, near the established magnitude for many features on earth, of 1.6 or 1.62, from the BINARY THEOREM. The difference is at most 2%, which can be improved, by using 2519 km, for the South Pole crater diameter. I WANT THREE SIGNIFICANT FIGURES! 5.159 km/m.y. (4096- 3800 m.y.)= 1527 km, yields 992km, earlier; 2519 – 1527km= 992 km, with a RATIO of 1.6496- WRONG TREND! Assuming that the 3.8 b.y. calculation is likely the source of the 2% error, the BINARY THEOREM indicates that the LATE BOMBARDMENT DATE is likely 3.797 b.y. (296 b.y. x 1.0115). 5.159 x (4096- 3797), 299= 1543 m.y., EARLIER; RATIO = 2500/1543= 1.62. WE NOW HAVE the LATE BOMBRDMENT occurring at 3.797 b.y., the change of distance separation of 5.159 compared to the .2519 km/m.y, for the two linear portions of the DISTANCE VS TIME CURVE, and the MOON INCREASING ITS MASS at the EXPENSE OF EARTH in the early days. This was an extraordinary event, much larger and more destructive than the later PRECMBRIAN GREAT UNCONFORMITY of 1.024 b.y.! NOTE: the 1.0115 multiplier is that found by the RATIO of 384,400/38, 000 km/b.y. lunar separation rate. Moon departed from the earth 1% earlier than expected (from the 3.8 b.y. transition LATE HEAVY BOMBARDMENT AGE). GRAVITATION is somewhat influenced by EXTRA-SOLAR EVENTS.****ANALYSIS of the 41 m.y. EVENT, DISPLAYED in many OUTCROPS The first notice of the 41 m.y. was found in the Kimmei Seamount- a fulcrum of the rotation of the HI-Emperor Chain. The rotation of the chain at that point is not precise, and the 45 degree turn takes a few million years to make the transition of the chain to one of roughly NW-SE orientation. This slow transition seems to be typical of these earth movements- where the PTr, or Permian-Triassic transition, (which left most fossils absent in the Triassic) required a few million years to allow the Petrified remains of trees to become obvious. Later, it was noticed that the calculated 41 m.y. event was found in the Aleutian Spiral, the Central American curlicue, the rise of the Sierras, the initiation of basaltic extrusion in the llano Quemado (Taos, NM), and the start of over-ride of the Olympic Peninsula. The 40N latitude Mendocino TRANSFORM connects with the large rotation at the Kimmei seamount, and this slice has replicated itself many times- calculated to have occurred since 192 m.y. AGE. There are as many as 5 slices parallel- roughly- to each other. Previously, I have indicated that the 41 m.y event is related to the change of the angle of the EQUINOX, from a smaller magnitude to that near the present 23.5 degrees, by the relation: 41m.y./2 m.y. ELTANIN EVENT= 20.5- a harmonic of the EARTH’S “ ringing” mechanism, where 360 degrees refers to a circumference of approximately 40,000 km (333.33 km/3 degrees of latitude- less than 20.6% deviation, from the 420 km- measured at the GAKKEL-LOMONOTOV separation). There is still doubt as to the applicability of the number 41, compared to 40.96 m.y., as would be indicated by the BINARY THEOREM. The hundredth harmonic of the series: .02, .04, 08, .16, .32, .64, 1.28, 2.56, 5.12, 10.24, 20.48, and 40.96 indicates that this should be the magnitude of such cycles as the MILANKOVITCH AXIAL ROTATION (k.y.), and the age of the MOON, in b.y. since the measured radioactivity AGES of such events as KT (65 m.y.) and PTr (251) have a less than 4% variation from the BINARY THEOREM (64 and 256 m.y.). I take this to be departures due to non-gravitational influences. These could be due to magnetic-electrical, thermal, or extra-SOLAR event, and I have made NO DETERMINATION of the one which is pertinent to GRAVITY ALONE. WE CAN EXPLORE the pertinence of both by use of RATIOS, such as the EARTH/VENUS ORBITAL CYCLES (days/year)= 1.62, from calculation, and from ccw features/cw rotations of crust- such as ANALEMMAS shown by the Aleutian Spiral, DAILY WEATHER LOW/HIGH PRESSURE CELLS, or by measured diameters of CP/B&R ARCUATE FEATURES in the EARTH’S CRUST. I have measured both 1.6 and 1.62, so that the evidence presents a MIXED BAG. CALCULATIONS YIELD: 40 k.y. AXIAL WOBBLE/25 k.y. PRECESSIONAL= 1.6, but the Precessional angle varies over a cycle from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees (literature reported), so that 40/21.5= 1.86, to 40/24.5= 1.63. The present calculation is: 40/23.5= 1.70- which yields NO CONCLUSION! ALTERNATIVELY, 40.96/21.5= 1.9; 40.96/24.5= 1.67, and these are close to: 41/21.5= 1.907; 41/24.5= 1.673. it appears that the RATIO 1.63, for 40,000/25.5 k.y. is closest to the 1.6 ratio I get from GOOGLE EARTH, so that I will continue to amass data which is measured, and NOT CALCULATED! Below is that for the COLORADO PLATEAU/BASIN and RANGE:**