Saturday, December 19, 2009


The Marianas Trench, and Eastward Movement with Time
Traces left on the Pacific floor indicate that there is a progression of movement of the trench toward the east, with time. Since this is the deepest and most actively-diving entity for the entire globe, it bears investigation to determine whether it fits with my findings that Coriolis cells are involved in Dynamics features for almost everything in the Crust, except the 40N or 40S terminations of the Equatorial Bulge (and minimally for latitudes between 10N and 10 S). Not clear is the spreading of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and its simultaneous influence on moving features, such as the Hurricane fault. Deferred is the re-arrangement of the Polar Axis and related Equator position (after the possible KT strike), which re-set the Coriolis Forces to a new direction (relative to the actively-spinning Equator).
The feature which makes me conclude that Coriolis forces are dominant in Structural Geology, and that these are NOT primarily influenced by movements of the Mantle (or Plumes and circulations there), is the appearance of the Pacific Hourglass.
This feature creates a mirror image of the trace of the HI-Emperor seamount chain, some 2500 miles to the west. Mantle plumes would not be of this magnitude, and even if so, would not create a symmetrical feature, such as the Hourglass. Only features which operate on a GLOBAL SCALE would present such a portrait. Known entities- thinking globally- include Coriolis rotation, Equatorial Bulge Diminution, Magnetic Polarity reversals, and Telluric currents (probably related to Magnetism). Asteroids and meteor strikes certainly have their global influence, but they are almost random, and cannot be entertained.
The Pacific hourglass lower portion is shown above, sub-divided in two Coriolis cells, which are the largest for this feature. There are several smaller ones, in the center of the lower skirt of the hourglass, and we will consider that they are subordinate to the larger feature. This I have found is generally true, but there is a difference in rotation velocity along Latitude lines, so that small cells have a larger maximum velocity (at the extremity of the cells), compared to the cells with greater diameter. I have placed yellow pins at islands, linears, vents, and transforms where significance to the overall circular configuration occurs. These pins show the cell circumferences, for both the larger half of the hourglass, and for the somewhat smaller cell within it. ABOVE IS SHOWN THE DISPLACEMENT OF THE EAST PART OF THE HOURGLASS, WHICH IS THE SAME AS THE HI-EMPEROR SEAMOUNT CHAIN. THIS TRACE OF THE NA QUADRANSPHERE PATH IS PART OF THE ROTATION OF THE ENTIRE NORTH AMERICA CELL.
The first feature of interest (to me) is the crossing of the Equator by the skirt’s lower transform. The fact of the traverse means that there is a wobble of the Earth or a non-equilibrium of rotation of the earth in respect to rotation of the skirt cell. The surface velocity at the Equator should be maximum for the whole Earth, so that Coriolis forces would not result in a crossing of the Equator. However, since I use as my model the Coriolis-induced weather patterns, the annual appearance of the Inter-Tropical Wave might be instructive to investigate. Ignoring this infraction for the time, notice that the rotation of the skirt explains the appearance of a double line of volcanic islands for the larger HI islands. It has been proposed that this double set of extrusions is a regular feature for the HI chain. This is not correct, since islands or seamounts north of the skirt would have nothing in common with the rotation of the more southerly skirt- being related to the more northerly rotation in times before 28 m.y. (Midway Island).
The skirt’s lower boundary- the E-W transform crossing the Equator- continues to the 5S latitude (near the S. Pacific island of Nanumanga), and this is a considerable anomaly. Possibly, the EB is maximum at this location, so that spatial velocity is maximum there (instead of at the geometrical Equator). Major changes occur further west, due to approach of the Australian plate (moving northward), and it is best not to mix the Southern Hemisphere with an analysis of the North.
Before proceding further, look at the larger picture- that of the entire North Pacific Ocean basin. Below, it shows that the northern zone- above the Equator- has 5 bands of Latitude, with about 8 degrees of separation each, which influence the direction of movement and rotation of large Coriolis cells: This is scanned below, viewing above and below the Equator: Notice that the band span is still about 8 degrees of Latitude between two successive transforms. Best not to mix these two categories- North and South of the Equator just yet. The rules for the south are different, since the masses in the south are generally moving northward and difficult to separate from the Coriolis effects- which are scanty. We will put this on the BACK BURNER, BUT THE FACT OF A CROSS-EQUATORIAL FEATURE CANNOT BE IGNORED! Looking at the entire feature, which is circular and surrounds the Galapagos Islands, the Baja Peninsula rotation, the SEAMOUNT AND ISLANDS OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC, AND THE MIDWAY ISLAND POSITION ON THE HI-EMPEROR CHAIN. THIS IS VERY SIGNIFICANT, FROM A WORLD VIEW OF EARTH DYNAMICS.
Finding the termination of the HEMISPHERE CIRCLE requires a leap across the Andes Mts. to the SOUTH OF SOUTH AMERICA. In two stages, notice how the trace arrives back at the 40N latitude, where the Equatorial Bulge terminates (same as at Mendocino, where the anomaly started in our examination):

Finding which EB is now in effect requires some additional analysis: IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC, THERE IS A PARTIAL BULGE BOUNDARY SHOWN FOR THE VOLCANIC ISLANDS OF FRENCH POLYNESIA, and we will try to determine if it is younger than the hemispheric Pacific Hemispheric Display, PHD. Notice that in the following photo, there is displacement along a transform of the partial circle. This suggests that PHD is younger; however, the active vulcanism in the partial one suggests the opposite. We will have to resolve this dilemma with other analyses: Equatorial Bulge changes, since Polar Axis shift
The above Google photo shows part of the boundary of EB, for the South Pacific, indicating that EB can be traced from Mendocino at 40N Latitude to the South American Bulge at 18S. This is shown by transforms for the E-W portion and by islands and seamounts for the west portion. My interpretation of the transit across SA to the 23S Latitude in the Atlantic is shown above and below, untouched, except for YELLOW PINS SHOWING DEFINITE CIRCULAR PATHS FOR EB MOVEMENT.
The east portrait transits inland at North America, just below Long Island, NY- evidently determining the E-W orientation of the island.

There are several reasons why it is INCORRECT that the EB transit across South America from the bulge on the Andes side goes NE along the AMAZON RIVER rather than SE towards the South Atlantic (eventually reaching Long Island, NY): 1. The curved paths across the Equator and toward the inflections in the ocean basin are not concentric, about the Central America ellipse;
2. The Equatorial Bulge should have a larger span of Latitude over the land mass- NOT smaller;
3. I have worked in the field on the Anatolia, Turkey case, and know that the development is similar to that for the Colorado Plateau, in that EB terminates below the Black Sea; and,
4. The Straits of Gibraltar allow the transit of the Bulge boundary, as do other islands in the Mediterranean Sea.

Although it is difficult to see the southern boundary of EB in the south Atlantic, it is apparent north of the Equator. It is shown via the yellow pins on the following Google Earth map:
There is other information shown by the placement of the pins. Note that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, MAR, has displaced transforms shown for the very transit investigated. This indicates that there is CCW rotation for the east side, relative to the west side. This would make the eastern side a rise, versus a deep to the west. This is confirmed for the Cape Verde and other islands occurring to the east, where there are none to the west. Further, the rotation of reactionary cells, RC, may be used to determine the direction of rotation along the EB boundary. Note the large cell rotating just north of EB, in the Atlantic just west of Gibraltar.

Between these two coastal locations is a vast circular exhibit of CRUSTAL DISPLAYS, and to the south are many islands which evidently result from the movements of the Bulge and its independent Coriolis rotations. My experience working with these cells and with areas I have investigated in the field (for geological information) shows that these two entities are responsible for almost all of the STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY features of the globe. Let’s get some measured information, to check further from the above photo, by using Google Earth tools.
Displacement by a newly-forming Bulge Boundary is shown for the TRANSFORM at 6S Latitude- which is 111 km. and if this is divided by the time since KT, this results in 1.7 mm/year movement of the transform, northward. Pitcairn Island is 404 km from the newly-forming transform to its north, and this results in the Bulge being displaced to the north by 218 nm (minutes of arc, or 3.64 degrees of Latitude). I think that this is small, for the re-orientation of the Polar Axis, but we will add it to the HOPPER (IT MIGHT BE DUE MAINLY TO TIDAL FRICTION- causing slowing of the spin of the EARTH). The main assumption, so far, uses the Physicist Alveraz’s finding that an Asteroid Strike was responsible for the Yucatan crater at 65 m.y. Cretaceous time. This re-set the Polar Axis and resultant Equator, and the Crust has been adjusting continuously since then to offset the MECHANICAL FORCE AND SHOCK TO THE SPINNING EARTH. This has little to do with the Coriolis cells which are noticed within the bulge, except that they react to the movements of the Earth and are positioned by the Bulge transforms and boundaries.
The above photo indicates that the EB now in force is being supplanted by one further to the north (further to east than the crossover point), and is creating a zone of active vulcanism at the CROSSING OF THE TWO FEATURES.
This is hinted by two findings on the photo:
1. The rising feature to the west (upward-moving entities in the Southern Hemisphere rotate CW, oppositely to that in the north) has many active volcanoes on South Pacific Islands; and,
2. The transform at 6S is being displaced to the north, the expected occurrence for a diminishing EB.

We’ll have to check this however we can, but it seems that EB is the only entity which could cross the Equator, of the known SPINNING EARTH PHEMOMENA. We have to prove that the bulge is generally moving westward with time (relative to the Mantle, which is more distant and more dependant on the core of the earth- which is more neutral), due to the CRUST BEING SLOWED BY TIDAL INTERACTION WITH THE MOON. I have previously calculated that the Crust at the Equator is moving westward 6 nm/million years, due to the measured Length of Day (LOD) increase, of 24 seconds of time (relative to the non-bulge region).
A preliminary check on these tentative conclusions is supplied by referring to the GEOID. There is departure in the South Pacific to Antarctica on the positive side, for the Geoid, and this could be instituted by rising- which is what is suggested in the photo. WHAT WE HAVE GOTTEN FROM ALL THIS IS THAT THE OCEAN CRUST DISPLAYS FEATURES ON A HEMISPHERE SCALE, AND THIS MAY HELP UNDERSTAND THE MARIANAS TRENCH.

Back to the Marianas Trench, the eastward progression of the traces of previous fossil arcs seems to fit the finding that EB is moving eastward for latitudes between 40N and 40S. The Radius of Curvature diminishes with the eastward progression, and this denotes that the anomaly is decreasing in size with time. This would not be expected for Earth slowing with Tidal influence from the Moon; another possibility is that the Marianas arc is rotating faster- hence becoming smaller in diameter. Should this be the case, it cannot be attributed to slowing of the earth or moon- both of which would result in lesser influence. Slowing of either results in decrease of Equatorial spatial velocity. This event has occurred since the Miocene, so that a short-time wobbling, nutation, or wandering of the Pole is eliminated.
Alluding to the “sliced fruit analogy” whenever a slice in the Earth is made vertically- the trace is linear, whereas a lesser angle of slicing produces a circular configuration. A slice near the surface results in a smaller curvature on the fruit, and this is one tale suggested by the increase of curvature (smaller radius of curvature) with time. But what has produced the change? Should the increase in angular velocity be the “Usual Suspect” and the CRUSTAL MOVEMENT BE OCCURRING SHALLOWER WITH TIME, then the DEEP TRENCH NEARBY WOULD CORROBORATE, SINCE IT IS DEEPENNG FASTER THAN SILTATION CAN OFFSET THE PROCESS. The many vents noticed nearby to the east would hint that external events are creating the faster rotation.
I have placed a linear measurement from the Marianas Trench from inflection to inflection (about 1/3rd of an arc), which has an associated distance of 1543 km. The centerline diameter would be approximately similar in magnitude, hinting that the Hourglass skirt is superior in influence.
Below are shown Coriolis cells east of the Marianas- where there is a rotation inside of a rotation, indicating subsea VENTS which are reacting to the northward movement of the volcanism experienced in the Marianas (Anatahan and others are still erupting to the north, while Guam has NO GEOTHERMAL EXPRESSIONS).

There’s a chance that there Is a RELICT EB, which has been abandoned as the EARTH SLOWS, which will yield information about the development of the Marianas Trench. Consider this SCENARIO, WHERE THERE REMAINS A CIRCULAR PORTRAIT OF ISLANDS AND SEAMOUNTS WHICH TRACE A LARGER BULGE AROUND THE EARTH (than the one we have chased from Mendocino, finally westward from Turkey to Long Island, NY). This scenario is necessary to consider, because the part of the globe from the Marianas to Asia Minor has been ignored. This Asian portion is irregular, partly because both the Australian region and India have moved northward and introduced a complication in a world-wide analysis.
Starting with Wake Island, which is NEAR the western edge of the great Pacific transform originating at Mendocino, CA, this can be followed to Bairiki Island, at 1N Latitude in the Gilberts, to Samoa at 13S, to THE SOUTH AMERICAN COAST AT 33S ALONG TRANSFORMS AND VENTS ON THE OCEAN FLOOR.

Tracing the relict path across the continent is again difficult, but there appears regular shear (Bay trending eastward on the south side) on the east coast of SA) at 42S Latitude. After this location, tracing EB along obvious transforms becomes problematic, but there is an inflection in the MAR AT 47S, after which the south tip of Africa is found. The scenario has some credence as a relict bulge boundary, back in time, since the trace of India moving northward should have influenced the further east traces before the MID-TERTIARY TIME. After this the trace would make a smooth transition toward the Persian Gulf, but again by-passing most of Asia.
All of this is rank speculation, but allows some insight into the formation of the Marianas Trench, because in both cases the previous or present EB is shown well east of the trench. The trench therefore represent a discontinuity in the world-wide portrait of EB and of genesis of the rebirth of EB with time (due to slowing of the spin rate of the EARTH as the MOON slows the spin and increases the length of day, LOD.
Trans-Equatorial features, for the Earth-Moon System
There are a number of entities observed on Google Earth maps which indicate that Coriolis and Equatorial Bulge (EB) termination are not the only dynamics operating on the SPINNING EARTH. These include:
1. Chains of islands which form patterns crossing the Equator;
2. Seamounts and ocean bottom features which trend from the Antarctica toward the NE;
3. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, MAR; and,
4. The great Rift Zone of Africa.

Since Coriolis rotations and EBD cannot cross the equator, there must be other dynamics operating:
A. Magnetic pulsing and cycling, including polarity change;
B. Asteroid strikes, which are also mechanical in nature (among many other facets); and,
C. Contraction of the earth, as it slows and incurs longer length of day, LOD.
Several factors are operating on the last category:
a. The moon with its earth tides exerts friction on the velocity of the earth, thereby slowing it and shrinking bulges due to Centrifugal Force;
b. The earth-moon system is one which has a center of mass which is not at the center of the earth; rather, the circle about which the system spirals is near the Mantle-Crust boundary. This creates a sinusoidal-spiraling helix rotating about the Ecliptic (which is the annual path of the earth-moon system around the sun); and.
c. The continents shrink slowly, with large viscosity, while the oceans react within days to reduction of bulges and movement of mass away from shrinking regions.
Factor c. above is difficult to visualize, but essentially the pair of Earth-Moon bodies complete an annual cycle by rotating about each other (THE CENTER OF MASS) monthly, while rotating annually about the SUN. Since the moon has an angle of about 5 degrees to the Ecliptic, and the earth has about 27.5 degrees, there is a wobble created by the little dance. This wobble creates a path in three dimensions for the essentially planar ecliptic, and in doing so results in a path which is mostly south of the Equator. That is, the moon is on the south side of our Equator more often than otherwise. This is an imbalance- because of the wobble.
The path can be seen on the following Earth photo from 22,000 miles in space from a satellite.

Notice that the weather creates the visible path, by the trend of the clouds. Also notice that there are two altitudinal trends:
i. Our weather occurs in the lower 10 km of atmosphere (low refers to low altitude), and
ii. An upper level band of clouds moves across the Equator, deviating around the South Pacific islands. It is my conclusion that the circum-global trend is motivated by the monthly movement of the center of mass of the Earth-Moon system.


Incorporating these analyses above, we now can look at the MARIANAS TRENCH, to determine whether the MANTLE DRAG TO THE EAST NOTICED WHENEVER THERE IS NO MOUNTAIN CHAIN TO MOVE THE DRAG IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION: Notice that there are several Coriolis cells, which appear to be REACTIONARY CELLS (MOVING IN RESPONSE TO A LARGER ENTITY). A FIRST GUESS IS THAT THE MANTLE IS DRAGGING THE CRUST TO THE EAST, AND OVER-PRINTING A NEW CIRCULAR DEVELOPMENT ON TOP OF FOSSIL, OR RELICT, TRACES. The cell has only partially developed (having no bottom half), and appears to be reacting to two linears (large-diameter partial arcs) at right angles to each other. Search these cells for a clue to their rotation direction.


Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Seeking Slickensides along the Great Basin and Range Lateral fault at the Virgin River

Above is a Google photo of part of the Virgin River- leading to Overton Arm of Lake Mead, NV and below is the area hiked for details, such as slickensides and river diversions and meanders, caused by lateral Coriolis rotation:

Oh, The Buzzing of the Bees and the Joshua Trees,
The Soda Water Fountain,
Where the Lemonade Springs, and the Blue Bird sings,
At the Big Rock Candy Mountain.

It is enough to make one burst out in song, to hike the great features of the West- along the Beaver Dam Mountains and the babbling Virgin River. And indeed our group did just that today, on the Trek along the canyons and sheer slopes of the BDM off I-15 near the Cedar Pocket Park.
This is BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY! Although there was snow in the distance, the climb was exhilarating up the road to Beaver Dam Mountains. Surprisingly, there is a good gravel road into the high country, north of the Freeway. Walking only 2 kilometers, we were flush with LIFE- enjoying the false Spring after the recent snows. And the trip was not just for indulgence of Fall days- we found many GEO-features, which were rewards for “toning up” octogenarian muscles and attitudes. LIFE IS GOOD!
The photo above reveals considerable information about the trek made- where one can readily find what is occurring with the DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH. This is enhanced by walking in an area which is pregnant with sinks and uplifts- where the actively-moving B&R lateral fault inscribed about most of the state of Nevada and part of Utah left its mark. Quite confidently, the lateral fault is moving CRUST southwest on the north side of the Virgin- where the Virgin itself is the result of the shear transpiring along this roughly circular path. All of the preceding analyses leads one to surmise that there would be HEAT FROM BRITTLE ROCK FRICTION developing along this path. But this is not the case, since there are buffering cells of Crust rotating in harmony with the B&R fault, counter-rotating against those at the Virgin river. Notice that cells adjoining the Virgin river are rotating CW on the NW side (similar to the B&R), and rotating oppositely on the SE side of the river. Two gears rotating side by side, meshing together while rotating in opposite directions, are in harmony- producing no heat (with proper lubrication by the river of course!). Conversely, should two cells both rotate in the same mode, CW vs. CW, there will be Hot Springs, geothermal areas, or vulcanism. This is the case for the B&R fault near the towns of Hurricane and Laverkin- where several vents have occurred, and where Pah Tempe Hot Springs still tells the story that friction is occurring at a shallow depth. The Earth will tell us when there is CONFLICT OR DISHARMONY, with appearance of an anomaly of some sort. And of course, this is the goal of all Earth science workers- to find an anomaly, which will pay for his upkeep. GAIA only reimburses those with finders of the KEY TO THE CODE! And here are the first few rules:
1. Coriolis rotation produces the most common anomalies throughout the crust- CW implies sinking in the Northern Hemisphere, while CCW rotation indicates uplift;
2. The termination of the Equatorial bulge at 40N or 40S Latitudes, produces shear and displacement of geological features laterally;
3. Circular River paths, slickensides with lateral striations, shearing of concrete slabs horizontally, dragging of river banks and loops in the form of anomalous meanders and cliffs, and linear fracture patterns all yield clues as to the dynamic activity of the Crust; and,
4. Dipping or tilting of sedimentary beds, along with the direction of dip, tells a subtle story of vertical rotation of Coriolis cells within the Crust.
5. Interestingly, some Coriolis cells posses a centerline, allowing one to determine the outer circumference as a check of one's appraisals. Others, such as the Double Thrusts of the Valley of Fire, NV, have rotations between the two linears.

A sixth rule, that of cycling of the movements of the Crust, is still under analysis. It seems that the Magnetic Polarity reversal, producing spreading of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is happening near anomalies also. This is noticed for the cycled benches at the Hurricane Fault, Hf, as successively-rising terraces going eastward back in time. The cycling time spread is on the order of something less than a million years- 220,000 years apart for the Hf terraces.
The slickensides in limestone walls within one mile of I-15 Freeway and the Cedar Pocket Park are on the south wall of a sinking cell, and show some "cat steps" or indications of rotation direction:

The next story told by the Coriolis cells agrees with the adage: "For Every Valley there's a stream, and for EVERY SADDLE THERE'S A FAULT". In the below photo, the slickensides (indicating a lateral fault), with a bit of curvature, align with the Saddle to the south- "rounding out" the presentation:
Before we proceed down the Virgin to the Overton Arm TRIPLE JUNCTION, view a smaller TJ at the intersection of the Santa Clara and Virgin Rivers: Expanding the Santa Clara- Virgin junction (A TRIPLE JUNCTION, WHERE TWO ROTATIONS MERGE), there are a number of anomalies which we will investigate, by hiking in the area:

Monday, December 14, 2009

The Equatorial Bulge exists mainly on the (Plain?) Continents, and covers a Lesser Latitude Band for Ocean Basins

EB shrinks on the Floor of the Pacific Basin

Above Google photo shows that the Equatorial Bulge gradually moves southward (scanning the North Pacific), as the transform creating shear between it and the Crust to the north shears the Pacific Basin. This was previously noticed, when analyzing the contact between the Basin and Range Province, B&R, and entities near the Snake River plain. The Yellowstone Rhyolite Track is created by this wedged opening (Thermal expansion of a rising extrusion) between B&R and the rotating Oregon cell- due to the conflict in rotation velocity (there is a large difference in diameter of cells, so that one is traveling much faster than the other). This EB shrinking west across the Pacific Ocean is created by the slower movement above the MANTLE, FOR CRUST IN LATITUDES WHICH HAVE NO BULGE. EB moves relatively to the west (seen as an apparent movement north of 40N to the east) because of tidal friction with the Moon, which slows the Earth by 24 seconds, each million years (6 nautical miles along the Equator, and The BULGE SLOWS MORE DUE TO THE GREATER INFLUENCE FROM TIDAL FRICTION, THAN NON-BULGE). A DIAGRAMMATICAL VIEW OF THE REGION SOUTH OF EB IS SHOWN BELOW, TO EMPHASIZE THE DRASTIC STRUCTURAL CHANGES OCCURRING NEAR IT:
Reducing the Oregon movements to a DIAGRAM makes the presentation simpler:
The Crust under Ocean Basins is thinner than that for the continents, because of its higher density, and evidently the Bulge occurs over a narrower Latitude Band. This may not have been previously noticed, since the continents would have been the regions where the Bulge was measured. The continents are above sea level, consequently have a Bulge for that reason (as well as for the larger density in basalt ocean floor rocks), whereas the oceans have several kilometers depth of sea water instead.
This is presented with a view of vertical rotation under the continent (reorganized SUBDUCTION):

This may be analyzed from a photo of the CA-NV-OR 3 state view: Below Figure reduces the NW USA to a Diagram, where the important features are emphasized (this is not to scale, but shows the various contrasting projections):
Notice the following FEATURES:
1. The horizontal cylinders of vertical rotation have larger diameters to the north. This is inferred from the further-out-to-sea RIFT TO THE NORTH, IN THE PACIFIC BASIN;
2. The Cascades and NW WA features are based deeper to the north (BECAUSE OF THE LARGER DIAMETER CELL THERE- MT. LASSEN, CA IS WITHIN THE 320 KM. SHEAR ZONE, AND SHOULD BE THE SHALLOWEST VOLCANO- RESEARCHERS SHOLD CHECK THIS!), allowing the Olympic Montains to ride upward- almost horizontally;
3. The MANTLE MOVES EASTWARD, SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE CRUST, HENCE DRAGS THE HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS CCW- LOOKING NORTH. This is exaggerated for the larger diameter cylinders and helps create the Rhyolite Track at the border of ID, NV, and OR;
5. The vertically-rotating horizontal cells, which create the Cascades and help initiate the Rhyolite Track across ID are working in concert with an independent force- Coriolis- and are due mainly by the shear developed by the edge of the Equatorial Bulge, EB (THIS IS THE ZONE OF WIDTH OR 320 KM); and,
6. The base of Cascade Vulcanism is deeper to the north, and this can be checked by EARTHQUAKE DATA.

To be continued, as we get more input from cases AROUND THE WORLD!