Monday, January 4, 2010
SOLUTION TO THE EASTWARD-MOVING YELLOWSTONE EXTRUSION SITE PUZZLE
As shown in the above TRACK OF THE RHYOLITE EXTRUSIONS, WHICH TERMINATE IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, there is an intermittent movement of the extrusions to the east. These started in the MIOCENE, SOME 15 million years prior, and are violent in nature- blasting periodically, and releasing heat today in the park. The siliceous composition indicates that they derive from the CRUST AND NOT THE MANTLE. They have been described as a continental “hotspot” similar to that in HAWAII, supposedly derived from a “plume”, and this is just an assertion, with no evidence to support it.
The first clue to their origin is the double circular path, concave upward for the western art, and concave downward for the later path. This strongly hints involvement with Coriolis Force and Rotation, but there is ALSO a hint that they derive from shear, since they are north of the Equatorial Bulge, EB. We will see that both of these features are involved.
The analysis of the Death Valley anomaly has shown that this western boundary of the Basin and Range, B&R, province is determined by the RISE OF THE SIERRAS, where the height of the mountain range became sufficient in the Oligocene to create TIDAL DRAG TO THE WEST, AND CREATE EXTENSION OF THE B&R. Good evidence for this conclusion is found by measuring the latitude change for the Sierras and the two transforms connecting Midway Island and the Garlock fault system, also Mendocino and the 41 m.y. kink in the HI-Emperor chain. It is about 6 degrees Latitude in both cases, and transforms stretch between both sets of these features. Rise of the Sierras became sufficient at Midway time (28 m.y.) to create TIDAL DRAG TO THE WEST- CREATING THE SHEAR FAULTING ALONG THE TRANSFORMS.
Below is shown a Google photo, with a count of the intermittently-formed valleys in the B&R. They occurred a million or more years apart, sufficiently for gradual extension of B&R, as the Sierras rose in Tertiary time. This correlates with the formation of Rhyolite sites in ID, from the SW border with Oregon, on to Yellowstone NP: Notice that the B&R extension is greater in the south, compared to that in the north. Further evidence of this correlation is shown by greater E-W shift at the Garlock fault, CA for coastlines, compared to that at Mendocino (185 km compared to 100, further north.
INFORMATION FOUND IN THE RHYOLITE TRACK GRAPH:
Several other features are noticed in the EXTRUSION TRACK LEADING TO YNP:
1. The rhyolite sites are small initially, gradually building to calderas 50 km or more- to the EAST;
2. The sites are intermittent, correlating with basins to the south in Nevada (there are about an equal number of valley and sites- these represent SURGES OF CRUSTAL ACTIVITY, approximately 1 million years apart);
3. The sites become more closely positioned as the present location is approached. The valley associated with this- Great Salt Lake- may harbor several N-S basins, which are masked by the salt deposits;
4. The first large rhyolite site occurs near the ID, NV, and OR border, which is near the first B&R valley. This has been shown to be related to the north boundary of the Equatorial Bulge, EB, near 40N Latitude;
5. The velocity of intermittent sites moving to the east is about 2 cm/year, as shown on the first graph showing distance and time of eruption. This compares with the movement of the Los Angeles Garlock fault creating a movement of coastline approximately 1 cm/year at the southern border of the Sierras feature;
6. The NV display of B&R faulting indicates an inverted fan- larger at the base (S. part of NV). This can be accounted by the CW movement of the B&R lateral fault on the south side, and also by the faster rotation of structures closer to the Equator (no influence of EB is expected north of 40N); and,
7. The occurrence of B&R valleys starts with the eastern boundary of the Sierras, and terminates with the Wasatch Line or Scarp. All of this region is expected to be under extension due to the westward movement of the Sierras, compared to compression and CCW movement of the Colorado Plateau, CP.
How does this square with the earlier analysis, where the vertical and horizontal rotations in Oregon create HEAT in the SE corner of the state, and where a projected wedge is created by the expansion of the rising rhyolites masses? I believe this is still true, and is merely an offshoot of the MAIN IMPETUS, OF EXTENDING B&R PROVINCE DUE TO THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF THE SIERRAS. The heat is undoubtedly being produced, and the area is being opened similar to wedging, but now it appears that the extension occurs with a PULL FROM THE SIERRAS AS THE TALL MOUNTAINS ARE MOVED TO THE WEST BY TIDAL FRICTION FROM THE MOON.
There is another aberration, created by the Rhyolite Track now occurring at 44N, far from the original bulge boundary at 40N- the border of ID, NV and OR. Although the B&R extends into eastern Idaho, it appears that the rhyolites sites are not only occurring closer in distance and time, but that they are now interfering with the Rocky Mt. chain- correlating with an inflection in the chain going westward (different from the usual circular presentation).
Recall that the Sierras terminated at the 40N latitude, and should affect the B&R no further north than this boundary of EB. The CW rotation of the Great Plains cell is moving the track somewhat to the north (and the Rockies are rotating CCW to the west, as they rise), and the harmony of meshing gears should produce no vulcanism.
The conclusion pertains to the movement of mountain ranges to the west, under the drag produced by their unusual height. THE ROCKIES PRESENT A FEATURE WHICH IS MOVING TO THE WEST ALSO (by tidal friction), AND THIS IS CREATING COMPRESSION OF THE YNP AREA TO STOP FURTHER EXTENSION- TO THE WEST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
EVIDENCE FOR EXTENSION EAST OF THE ROCKIES IS FOUND BY LOOKING AT THE NUMEROUS BASINS WHICH EXIST JUST EAST OF THE MOUNTAINS. I worked on several of these- Wattenberg, CO, Bowdoin Dome, MT, and Canadian basins, and realized 30 years ago that there were anomalous fractures above oil and gas fields which delivered exotic dissolved minerals (B, Fl, and Li) to shallow water wells. The easy access of permeability for upward-moving ions is indicative of extension of the subsurface above oil deposits.
A. THE YNP EXTRUSION ZONE IS CREATED BY THE EXTENSION RESULTING FROM THE MOVEMENT OF THE SIERRAS WESTWARD- WHICH FORMS BASINS TO THE EAST OF THE SIERRAS- AND TO SHEAR BETWEEN THE NO-BULGE ZONE NORTH OF THE EXTENSIONAL VALLEYS AND THE REGION SOUTH;
B. THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS ARE NOW INFLUENCING YNP, SUCH THAT COMPRESSION FROM THE EAST IS NOW OFF-SETTING THE PREVIOUS EXTENSION. THERE SHOULD BE NO FURTHER VIOLENT EXTRUSIONS, AND THE PRESENT HEAT SHOULD DIE AWAY;
C. SO LONG AS THE TETONS ARE RISING, THERE SHOULD BE CCW MOVEMENT TO THE WEST (RISING PROVINCE) AND THERE SHOULD BE COMPRESSION OFFSETTING THE EXTENSION, ALLOWING EXTRUSION OF RHYOLITE; AND,
D. EXTRUSION WITHIN THE GREAT PLAINS WILL BE FROM LOCAL VENTS, NOT FROM RHYOLITIC BLASTS.
CAVEATS FOR THE ABOVE CONCLUSIOINS:
a. By extrapolation, all feel intuitively that the present outpouring of steam, mud pots, geysers, and fumaroles will continue in YNP;
b. Although the youngest rhyolite extrusions have remained in nearly the same position (moving little eastward), the battering ram of the extension of the B&R is still attempting to pierce the wall of the Rocky Mountains. Mt. Whitney is higher than the highest of Rockies, and the Long Valley is still emitting steam and an occasional MonoCrater. These are testament to the extension of the B&R today. Whether the TIDAL SHOVE OF THE SIERRAS IS GREATER THAN THE RESISTING SHOVE OF THE ROCKIES IS UNKNOWN. AFTER ALL, THE TOTAL AREA OF THE ROCKIES IS GREATER THAN THE SIERRAS, EVEN WHILE THE VERTICAL BULGE IS LESS (MT. WHITNEY IS TALLER THAN THE MANY 13,000 FOOT PEAKS IN COLORADO);
c. ABOVE PHOTO OF THE YELLOWSTONE AREA INDICATES THAT THE BULGE HAS PARTIALLY PENETRATED THE ROCKY MTS, LEAVING TWO INFLECTIONS IN THE ARCUATE PRESENTATION; AND,
d. THERE ARE MANY INDICATIONS THAT YNP AREA IS ACTIVELY UPLIFTING: TILTING LAKES, TREMORS, AND SURGES IN THERMAL ACTIVITY.
WE MUST SEEK MORE INFORMATION TO AUGMENT ANY TENTATIVE CONCLUSION!
Reinforcement for the conclusion that there will be vents instead of violent extrusions TO THE EAST OF THE YELLOWSTONE TRACK is shown for the CAPULIN CRATER, OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO (EAST OF RATON). THIS IS A SALIENT, WHICH HAS FORMED FROM A “LEAKAGE” OF FRICTIONAL STRESS FROM THE ROCKIES: Capulin (chokecherry, in local terminology) is a young- 30-60k years extrusion of a larger Clayton to Raton, NM eastward salient from the Rockies. I have visited it and find the vent to be an ash fall- somewhat more violent than a simple basaltic type.