SUMMARY: SEDIMENTARY, AS WELL AS IGNEOUS FEATURES may be DATED BY EARTH TIDES- which move regularly, since the 2 m.y. ELTANIN STRIKE, at 20 .48 km/m.y. in NW corner of CRUSTAL BLOCKS, ISOLATED from surrounding surface by a TRAPEZOIDAL CONFIGURATION. This includes the MAJORITY of the NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT. The earth’s CRUST is moving steadily and regularly to the west, 20 mm/year (20 km/million years), due to EARTH TIDES. This is easily seen on GOOGLE EARTH as “tic marks” in ocean basins and almost as easily on continents; these are separated by a measurable distance, using the Google measuring tool. An example is shown for the Mendocino Transform, which reaches from California to the Kimmei seamount south of Aleutian Islands: ENLARGING, TO VIEW EARTH TIDES FROM THE MOON AND SUN:
Below is a case more close to home- that of the Washington fault, which can be shown to be 1 m.y. of age, by this method:
Since the WA City fault is 20.48 km west of the Hurricane fault, Hf, this distance/20.48mm/year yields an age of exactly one million years: QUICK calculation AGE= 20 km/20 km per million years= 1 m.y.
This calculation is INAPPROPRIATE whenever no account is made of the SOLAR TIDE, which incurs an additional 10 mm/year movement to the east. The greens springs anomaly is expanded, to determine whether it can be found:
The Milankovitch cycles found are those for the ELLIPTICAL (25k) and the AXIAL (41, or 40.96 k years). THERE ARE SMALLER (REGARDING TIME) CYCLES, AND THESE WILL BE IDENTIFIED LATER. MILANKOVITCH ONLY MADE MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR THE MAJOR FEATURES AFFECTING CLIMATE, AND I HAVE FOUND BOTH LENGTHIER AND SHORTER CYCLES. I have found from other calculations, that all features near Hurricane, UT result from and are subsequent to the ELTANIN strike of 2.15 m.y. and this is an upper limit for the Washington fault. What has been demonstrated above is that the span of time necessary to create a MILANKOVITCH CYCLE is fixed for a TRAPEZOIDAL CONFIGURATION (if it can be definitely identified). SEE FOOTNOTE 4.
I have found that this ratio is the normal ratio, for Milankovitch cycle diameters of the 40 k.years variety. Green Springs road and valley was formed by a precessional, and Washington fault by an AXIAL cycle- both of which are round, as opposed to an ELLIPTICAL cycle of 100 k.years rotation. The elliptical circles can be identified visually, because they are shaped like an ellipse! The ratio of two radii of an ellipse confirms that they belong to an ellipse, whenever the ratio of radii at right angles to each other (orthogonal measurements) is greater than 1.2:
Ellipses occur for a RATIO of Rmajor to Rminor >1.2 (this allows for measurement and interpretation errors),
and this pertains to a larger span of time- 100 k.years. Hence it is possible to determine the age of a feature, which is not elliptical, to an accuracy of 20,000 years (such as with the latest blast of Sullivan Knoll vulcanism):
I HAVE INCLUDED A LATER ROTATION, WHICH HAS DEVELOPED BY WOBBLE OF THE VOLCANIC PROTRUSION. THIS DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ORIGINAL EXTRUSION, BUT DEVELOPED DUE TO THE CONE HAVING PROTRUDED SUFFICIENTLY TO INCUR CORIOIS ROTATION (THERE IS A FAULTED OPENING ON THE NORTH SIDE, WITHOUT WHICH WE COULD NOT BE SURE OF THE CORIOLIS EFFECT).
LET'S NOW ANALYZE ANOTHER FEATURE, BELONGING TO THE MIOCENE, TO SOLVE SEVERAL ANOMALIES:
1. BASIN AND RANGE, B and R, N-S SINKING VALLEYS AND TILTED RANGES ARE KNOWN TO HAVE DEVELOPED DURING THE MOVEMENT OF THE SIERRAS TO THE WEST (THIS IS RECOGNIZED AS EXTENSION BY GEOLOGISTS). AS THE SIERRAS WERE SHOVED BY EARTH TIDES 20 KM EACH M.Y., THEY OPENED GREAT FRACTURE ZONES- SUCH AS MAMMOTH HOT SPRINGS AND YELLOWSTONE-TYPE EXTRUSIONS OF RHYOLITE PROGRESSIVELY TO THE EAST (NOW AT THE BORDER OF WYOMING AND IDAHO);
2. THESE EXTRUSIONS OCCURRED AT THE NORTH HEAD OF A LARGE EXTENSIONAL VALLEY IN NV- EACH ONE A VIOLENT SILICEOUS EXPLOSION OF LARGE EXTENT. THERE ARE 13 OF THESE, SIMILAR TO THE NUMBER OF VALLEYS IN NV, AND THEY DEVELOP AS THE VALLEY EXTENDS E-W WITH THE EARTH TIDE SHOVE OF THE SIERRAS TO THE WEST (THEY AVERAGE 20 KM E-W, THE AMOUNT FOUND FROM 20 KM/M.YEAR EARTH TIDE MOVEMENTS);
3. THE ACTIVITY ABOVE CROSSED THE TIME (EARLIER) BOUNDARY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE ELTANIN STRIKE, SO THAT WE HOW HAVE A CHANCE TO INVESTIGATE BOTH THE EARLIER EVENT AND THE RECENT REGIME OF ELTANIN, OF 2 M.Y. NOTICE THAT THE SMALL 19 KM E-W EXTENSION OF THE DIAMETER OF THE LARGER ROTATION IS ESSENTIALLY EQUAL TO THE 20 KM/M.Y. RATIO FOR ELTANIN. THE LARGER ROTATION DOES NOT; IT IS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 6 RANGES, WHICH REQUIRED AT LEAST 19 M.Y.(IN THE MIOCENE). THIS REQUIRES A RATIO OF 30 KM/M.Y. TO YIELD THE KNOWN AGE OF THE OLDER RANGES. EITHER THE SUN HAD MORE INFLUENCE THAN NOW, OR THERE WAS ANOTHER PLANETARY INFLUENCE FOR THE 6 M.Y. CYCLE DEVELOPMENT.
I NOW HAVE ANOTHER FIELD PROJECT, WHICH I CAN DO WHILE SHIFTING TO THE NW- WHERE IT IS COOLER ON WHIDBEY ISLAND. I WILL TRANSIT NV, USING GPS AND VISUAL SIGHTINGS OF THE WEST SIDES OF THE 6 RANGES, TO DETERMINE SEVERAL FEATURES:
A. THE LETTER "C" RELATES TO A PROBABLE VOLCANIC CONE- ABOUT WHICH THE ROTATION IN THE MIOCENE OCCURRED. IT APPEARS TO BE BASALTIC- WHICH IS WHAT I EXPECT. INCIDENTLY, I FIND THAT A COUNTER-CURRENT EVENT HAPPENS FOR SINKING VALLEYS, SIMILARLY TO WEATHER-TYPE HURRICANES, WHERE THE "EYE" HAS DOWNWARD MOVEMENT, OPPOSITE TO THAT OF THE RISING VIOLENT CELL. THE REVERSE ALSO OCCURS, THERE IS A SINKHOLE FOR RISING FEATURES- SUCH AS THE MUDDY FORMATION RISE AGAINST THE UPLIFT OF THE BEAVER DAM AND VIRGIN MOUNTAINS OF AZ TO UT.
B. THE RANGES SHOULD BE OLDEST TO THE WEST, SINCE THEY DEVELOPED WITH THE INITIAL EARTH TIDE SHOVE OF THE SIERRAS EACH MILLION YEARS. THE RANGES TO THE EAST SUCH AS MT. WHEELER, RUBY MOUNTAINS,ETC. SHOULD BE YOUNGEST AND THEREFORE HAVE A SMALLER DIP DOWN TO THE WEST. WITH TIME, THE WESTERN RANGES SHOULD BECOME MORE VERTICALLY DIPPING (WITH THE OLDER BEDS ON THE WEST SIDE). THIS WOULD ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIOUS RANGES HAVING THE OLDER ROCKS ON THE WEST SIDE- PROGRESSIVELY TO THE WEST, THE RANGES TO THE EAST SHOULD HAVE GENTLER DIPS DOWN-DIP TO THE WEST.
Footnote 1: The farthest extent of the Sun to the south, near the WINTER SOLSTICE- was measured by referring to a flat-topped Mesa in Arizona, east of my dwelling during 1990-93. I was surprised that the shortest day of the year was not December 21, or even Christmas (which I thought was a cultural celebration of the beginning of increased sunlight). I measured this event by finding the exact time when the sun’s first gleam (before it ruined my iris) arrived on the mesa top. No allowance was made for refraction, air pressure, or temperature, since the dry desert air had low humidity of 10-20 percent. This emphasizes that there is a greater amount of heat from the sun on the southern hemisphere than occurs in the north. Although less continental landmass exists in the southern hemisphere, there is a hotter half-year in Australia as a result. Argentina is less affected, and Chile- being cooled by the adjacent cold currents, is dryer but relatively uninfluenced. The larger fraction of ocean waters absorbs the excess heat, which adds impetus to the circulation of South Pacific waters toward the north. This entire phenomenon is determined by the ANALEMMA and the PEAR-SHAPED EARTH, developed from the incident of the separation of Australia from Antarctica; this is also co-incident with the PTr extinction of 256 m.y. age.
Note that the ANALEMMA gives a measure of the sunlight directed toward both hemispheres; there is significantly less heating the north, than for the south. The analemma suggests that this is a driving force which continues to move heat and landmass toward the north. This hints that the dilemma of the Australian and surrounding islands moving northward and creating the Tonga Trench (which has the fastest shear rate- measured so far- of 26 cm/year) is continued by the dominant influence of the sun. Although being much further than the moon, the total eclipse shows that they are of equal importance- the Moon exactly covers the sun during a solar eclipse. Consequently, we now have a phenomenon of heating to add to the mix of factors determining the movements of the CRUST of the earth (in addition to the dominant feature of gravitational arrangement of features in the northern hemisphere).
Instability of the CRUST, as seen by FOSSIL EXTINCTIONS
A GRAPH of regional rotation for the crust may be made from changes of orientation of ocean basin transforms, shown on
Google earth, as discontinuities of compass angles of adjacent transforms (for NV Miocene, Olympic Mountains, WA, Chixculub, Mexico, and Australian south coast).
This is of the mathematical series:
Rr (regional Rotation)= Change/m.y. (n x age, n-1 x next older age, n-2 x earlier age, n-3 x age, n-4 x largest age). I have measured the .35 DEGREE change/million years for the Gulf of Mexico, and I will find a more appropriate and sharper presentation in some other Tertiary location.
This series produces an approximation of the GRAPH, shown as transform orientation in “jerks”: 30 degrees, 45, 60, and 90 degrees SURGE.
Footnote 3: Using the “tic mark” to calculate AGE along a latitude line involves longitude. Calculating distance along an E-W line of latitude incurs a trigonometric change due to the decrease of the expected 20 km/m.y., as a measurement is made distant from the Equator. At the north pole, a degree of longitude change (along a latitude line) has zero accompanying distance. At 45N latitude, the westward change for 1 minute of longitude is .707 x the distance at the Equator=.707 x 1 nm or 1.85 km = 1.31 km.
Since publishing the ORIGINAL DATING CALCULATIONS, I have improved the anlalysis to include other crustal block corners. They haveVARYING RATES of TIDAL MOVEMENTS, ACCORDING to the mathematical formulation:
RATE= 10.24mm/yr(1 + sine COMPASS ANGLE from the NE corner); this yields 20.48 mm/yr , for the NW corner- which is the normal arc portrayed on GOOGLE EARTH. This arc must be exactly centered at the NW corner, or there is increasing error. The SW rate= 20.48mm/yr (1 + sine ANGLE from the NW corner); e.g. at the SW corner, exactly, the rate is 30.72 mm.yr. Thereafter, the rate decreases acccording to:
Rate = 30.72 - 20.48 sine angle from the SW corner. This yields 16.24 mm/yr at the extreme south location (meridian), and 10.24 at the east boundary of the CRUSTAL BLOCK.
This is shown by the DIAGRAM:
SUMMARY: SEDIMENTARY, AS WELL AS IGNEOUS FEATURES may be DATED BY EARTH TIDES- which move regularly, since the 2 m.y. ELTANIN STRIKE, at 20.48 km/m.y. FOR MANY CASES. See above DIAGRAM for the other CALCULATIONS.The Pliocene-Miocene boundary incurs a change at the unconformity, due to a rate change with either the SOLAR TIDE, or with a planetary influence, and this will be augmented later.
Below is a COMPARISON with RADIOACTIVITY-DATING, for the VEYO VOLCANO, located north of ST. George, UT: