Thursday, November 25, 2010
Basin and Range time since uplift initiation
A NEW significant finding is: The portion of the Crust which exhibits protrusions- mountains, bulges, and domes- moves west, under the impetus of EARTH TIDES. This daily action of the Moon shoves these high elevation segments to the west continually with time, since their uplift. The movement rate is small, but significant over geologic time- on the order of 1 mm/year. This effect causes linear chains- such as the Sierras- to move to the west (even though they are diagonally- NW-SE- arranged). The effect also creates a shear zone, called transforms by geologists, which can readily be mapped on Google Earth. For example, the Sierras have a linear portrait over some 700 km of distance, and this span is the same as the latitudinal distance between the 40N Mendocino parallel and the Garlock fault along the Santa Barbara coastline to Death Valley. The two transforms are obvious on the global map, and continue to 33N at the north end (Kimmei seamount, 41 m.y.) and Midway Island (28 m.y. measured age) on the south transform. This span of 7 degrees of Latitude represents 420 nautical miles or 1.85 x for kilometers = 777 km. The result of moving the Sierras westward continually is that several events can be noticed:
1. The Sierras rotate at the top westward, while being dragged by friction with the Mantle eastward at the base. This causes a vertical rotation of the Range- Central Valley, such that the mountains rise while the valley sinks. This is readily noticed in the central rivers- where the sinking requires levees that maintain the farmland above sea level. This is generally “laid off” on ground water withdrawal, settling of the delta, or compaction of loose soils, but the end result is the same- the delta must be “shored up” against flooding;
2. There is a shear zone at the 40N latitude, and this is the same as the top of the Equatorial Bulge, EB. Comparatively, higher latitudes move eastward (creating vulcanism- called the Cascades) and the boundary is at 40N, where west movement ceases and east subduction, or over-riding of the continental shelf, begins. This continues until the Canada border, or to the Olympic Mountains, where another drastic change occurs- an asteroid strike shoved Vancouver Island westward, while rotating it 45 degrees until Alaska (there are no volcanoes north of this zone until Alaska proper);
3. The Sierras moving westward creates an opening in the immediate province to the east, and in this zone there is extrusion, hot springs, and valley fill. This is called Mammoth Lake, Death Valley, and Monocraters;
4. Initially, there is extension, as the Sierras pull away from the basin created by the process. However, after a million years, the listric faulting of the basin creates a diagonally-arranged block (one of the Ranges of B&R). This block presents uplift to the west- with the oldest sedimentary rocks on the west side;
5. The range gradually rises with the listric faulting (DUE TO THE MANTLE DRAGGING IT BOTH EASTWARD AND UPWARD- BECAUSE OF TILT OF THE LISTRIC FAULTING,WHERE THE TOE OF THE BASIN INTERACTS WITH THE MANTLE), hence it also becomes the target of EARTH TIDES. Its protrusion causes it to move gradually to the west, as did the original Sierras movement. Consequently it creates another basin on its east side, which duplicates the process so long as all mountain ranges move westward;6. With the continual shove westward at the top and eastward dragging by the Mantle at the base, the range gradually presents the oldest sedimentary rocks on the east side. This yields an opportunity to measure the age of uplift by the amount of the rotation of the range. Old uplifts have east display of old rocks, and young have the display on the west side.
Ruby Mountains core complex, to the north, adds more information about the progression of the B&R throughout time. The youngest formation found there is Eocene- telling us that this uplift is younger than the 41 m.y. expected time of influence of the EO asteroid strike for the Northern Hemisphere. This fits with the conclusion that B&R extension is Miocene, but the bracketing of time needs some refinement. I expect that the significant uplift- sufficient to create EARTH TIDES’ shoving the Ruby Mts. to the west- is no older than Miocene. This leaves a gap of some 10 m.y. unaccounted. We have the unsolved problem that the time between an asteroid strike and its uplift on the opposite side of the earth is unknown. I expect that the time interval between crater formation and uplift is only on the order of 5 m.y. or so, and this added information about the uplift of the Ruby helps bracket it. Recall that Eocene sedimentary rocks are the youngest found in the Olympic Mountains, and I have related this to the rotation of the feature about Mt. Olympus after an asteroid strike in Canada has shoved western Canada to the west, with 45 degrees rotation while movement occurred. Further, we have found that the Grand Wash fault is 28 or 41 m.y. in initiation, and this agrees with that conclusion- as an upper bracket of time. The extension of the Muddy Creek basin has been found to be no older than 9 m.y. by radio-dating of basalts, and this puts a lower age to the bracket of time. Ruby Mts. uplift occurred during the extension period, and this now puts the age of B&R initiation between 9 and 41.m.y.
Noticing that the linear extent of B&R ranges becomes smaller on the west side of NV, this indicates that Coriolis rotation becomes more obvious with increased time of movement. The ranges on the west side of B&R are older- since they were opened after initial movement westward of the Sierras- and they have had more time to create rotations about the shove to the west (Coriolis force requires an independent movement- which it senses and surrounds). This is assumed to be later than the KT strike, but possibly determined by the 41 m.y. event (EO). Hence, the ranges in west NV are not as lengthy in the N-S direction (since they have been rotated out of alignment by Coriolis forces). Extrusions have another pattern- that of age increasing to the NE, with the youngest at the southern and southeastern borders of B&R.
This indicates that extension started more to the north. This agrees with the map of rhyolitic extrusions- which portrays the oldest at the ID, NV, and OR junction. The oldest basin would be just east of the Sierras, and it would have opened more on the north side because of interference on the south side (by DV and the great CW-rotating B&R lateral fault).
All of the above caveats allow a large uncertainty about the shove to the west by TIDAL FORCES. Nevertheless, there are a number of ranges which portray older beds high on the east side, and we will ferret them out. It is insufficient to obtain PIX from Search engines for this exercise, since they do not usually supply the orientation. The east or west side of the photo must be clearly shown, and the direction of aim of the camera is important. PIX shown, taken by tourists, are not reliable; I will have to make a foray specifically for the purpose of making a traverse across the central NV ranges, to obtain the evidence I need. If I get the desired traverse, and find that indeed most up-to-the-east outcrops are in the western half of B&R, WHAT HAVE I PROVED? I can get disproof, but the positive side of asserting that the bulk of western-shoved ranges will always be subject to doubt, and I will have to add other proofs to “cinch this up”. We will search another region- not in the USA- since this B&R-CP-Sierras Couplet is very unusual in global terms. I note that Tibet, Turkey and the Mongolian plateaus may be similar, but this will require another major effort.
In the meantime, we can only make tentative conclusions, subject to confirmation by other means or regions. It appears that all is in harmony with my findings, but added proof is necessary.
We have to find an intermediate age of vulcanism capping beds younger than Eocene to accomplish this dating. Mt. Dutton and other extrusive near the NV-UT border have been dated from 30-35 m.y. and this is the youngest in the area of central NV. Southern NV has extrusive dated at 14 to 30 m.y. and this indicates a younger age to the extension in the south compared to that in the north of NV. My model predicts that more easterly flows will be younger than westerly mountain ranges- with all up-to-the west ranges younger in uplift time than about 5 m.y. Maximum age of rotating ranges will be no more than 15 m.y. (age of the oldest rhyolitic extrusion on the ID-NV-UT border, at 13.6 m.y.).
PROVING THIS ENTIRE PROCEDURE WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY TAKING PHOTOS OF MOUNTAIN RANGES ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE PROVINCE >(not at the borders, where other events interfere, e.g. the great B&R lateral faulting on the south and east side of B&R); and,
7. There is drastic and violent extension on the north end of this range separation (DUE TO INTERFERENCE OF THE B&R LATERAL FAULTING ON THE SOUTH SIDE, AND TO THE CONTINUAL SHEAR ALONG THE EQUATORIAL BULGE NORTHERN BOUNDARY AT ROUGHLY 40N), and this produces Rhyolitic extrusions- the latest of which is Yellowstone. There are 13 of these rhyolitic displays- similar to the number of distinct Mountain Ranges in Nevada and Utah. Opening of the valleys creates such an extension on the north side, that violent extrusions have continued for some 13 million years. Each one is distinct, created by the opening of a large basin by the action of earth tides on linearly-oriented mountain ranges.
YOU MIGHT ASK WHY THE SIERRAS HAVE RISEN IN THE FIRST PLACE, BUT THAT IS ANOTHER STORY. I HAVE ALREADY RELATED THIS ACTION TO ASTEROID STRIKES CREATING MOUNTAIN CHAINS PARALLEL TO EXISTING COAST LINES, IN A PRIOR BLOG SUBMISSION. SCROLL BACK, BUT YOU WILL HAVE TO ENDURE TWO YEARS OF WRITINGS AND PHOTOS.
We now have a measure for the uplift of linear mountain chains:
DISPLAY OF OLDEST SEDIMENTS ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE RANGE INDICATES A LARGE TIME SINCE UPLIFT, WHILE THE CONVERSE ALSO IS IN EFFECT: LARGE ANGLES UP TO THE WEST OCCUR FOR NEW RANGES. THE SPREAD OF THIS 45 DEGREES OR MORE VERTICAL ROTATION MOVEMENT IS AN INDICATION OF THE TIME SINCE UPLIFT. CAVEATS EXIST FOR BORDER EFFECTS, SUCH AS FOR THE B&R LATERAL FAULT AT THE SOUTH BORDER AND ALONG THE WASATCH LINE. We should see a gradual change of tilt as we traverse central Nevada, increasingly dipping up to the east as we approach the Sierras. This is documented below, using digital photography: WHEELER PEAK, HIGHEST RANGE TO THE EAST:
SCHELL CREEK RANGE- WEST OF WHEELER:
THE NEVADA RANGES ARE ARRANGED TOP TO BOTTOM, PROCEEDING EAST TO WEST (DIP UP TO WEST SHOULD DIMINISH WITH WESTWARD TRAVERSE, TESTING WHETHER UP-DIP TO EAST INCREASES WITH PASSAGE OF TIME, IN MILLIONS OF YEARS):
EGAN RANGE: BELOW IS THE NORTH END OF MONITOR RANGE AND THE SULPHUR SPRING RANGE GEOLOGY, IN EUREKA COUNTY, NV:
TOIYABE RANGE, NEVADA
SHOSHONE RANGE, NEVADA CLAN ALPINE RANGE, ABOVE
The converse of this categorization is possibly true (at least for the B&R, where we have laid the groundwork); displays with the oldest beds up-to-the west should be young in uplift measure. This will be true for the Armargosa range, on the east edge of Death Valley, even though they are on the CA border. This observation necessitates the investigation of any range with up-to-the west bedding. These cases should be uplifting now, as opposed to those with up-to-the east bedding, which should be older, and which should have been significantly shoved to the west by TIDAL INFLUENCE.
THE REASONING FOR ALL THIS IS DUE TO THE SHOVE TO THE WEST OF PROTRUSIONS, AND TO THE DRAG BY THE MANTLE TO THE EAST, OF THE BASE OF THE MOUNTAIN CHAIN (AT THE LOWER CRUST). THIS CREATES A VERTICAL ROTATION, WHERE BULGES IN THE CRUST ARE MOVED TO THE WEST AT THE TOP.AND TO THE EAST BY THE MANTLE- FOR DEEP BASINS WHICH HAVE SUNK FAR ENOUGH TO ENCOUNTER THE INFLUENCE OF THE EASTWARD-MOVING MANTLE.
Finding that the Ruby Mountains rose as a CORE COMPLEX reminded me that there are other such features NOT INSIDE the Nevada B&R. I have concentrated on the interior states of CA, ID, NV, and OR, and have ignored those states- such as AZ- which are outside the region. AZ is partly inside the B&R-CP couplet (at least for half of the state), and it has several core complexes. The one I have hiked and previously analyzed is that of the Santa Catalina Mountains, near Tucson. It also has risen and incurred detachments faults, similarly to the Ruby Mt. These are described as gravity slides off crystalline rocks, and the entity describes my favorite oval-shaped Coriolis cell. This is shown below:
The elliptical shear lines (indicated by arcuate drainages) around the Santa Catalina mountains, relate that Tertiary activity has uplifted the CORE COMPLEX, and that this is superseded by the Santa Cruz River- which cuts through the region. This indicates that the river is older than the uplift, and that it was entrenched before the rise was initiated. Further there are two indicated major thrusts (shown by two centerlines). This sheds some light on formation of elliptical drainage patterns- such as we have already found in Death Valley, DV. These probably pertain to large asteroid strikes, and we will have to find a way to prove this. Due to the fact that asteroids are becoming smaller with time (the large ones have been swept clear by previous strikes), the major centerline is not necessarily the most recent event. More likely, the sharpest presentation is the younger. This appears to be the thrust to the east, and it interdicts the older one to the west. Further, the Santa Cruz is displaced CW by the rotation (note the displacement at the intersection), and the Santa Cruz has formed its own arcuate drainage inside the larger elliptical drainage pattern. My inclination is that core complexes, such as this one, are still rising, but the CW displacement says otherwise. Detachment faults should result in further uplift, as the rock is spalled off to lower elevations. The rise is initiated first by B&R extension- allowing low density rock to move upward, and this is accelerated by asteroid strikes- which “speed up” the process which is already in effect.
My conclusions for all of this analysis, related to the B&R extension and mountain rise in NV are as follows:
1. B&R and CP rotations were initiated in the EO, about 41 m.y. ago, by a radioactivity date measured at Kimmei seamount in the Pacific chain. The strike would have occurred prior to this date, and an unknown time transpired before the vulcanism at Kimmei was initiated;
2. The Sierras in CA were shoved westward as they rose significantly, and this opened a basin immediately to the east (DV, Mammoth, and Monocraters). The Sierras are still the highest range, hence move faster to the west than other ranges to the east (which are not as elevated- Mammoth area is continually extending and extruding heat);
3. Extension east of the Sierras allowed sinking of a basin which formed listric faulting. Sufficient sinking reached the top of the mantle, and this allowed the eastward-moving mantle to drag the toe of the sinking block to the east. This not only increased the basin width, but changed the angle of the listric faulting creating upward shove to the block (creating BLOCK FAULTING AND RISE OF SEDIMENTARY MOUNTAINS);
4. Block faulted mountains rise so long as the toe is dragged to the east, but with time the mountain chain becomes level (no dip, as it is rotated vertically). Further, erosion proceeds and the mountain uplift stalls. Then westward shove of the block occurs (DUE TO TIDAL SHOVE), and the dip of the sedimentary rocks noticeably changes from up-to-the-west to up-to-the-east. This process should occur in less than 14 m.y., since that is the time of the eastward-occurring ASSOCIATED rhyolitic extrusions to move from the initial site at the OR-NV border to the present ones at Yellowstone geothermal site; and,
5. Drag westward of a block-faulted mountain chain results in a new protrusion- which is dragged and rotated to form another basin to the east side of the new chain, and the process is repeated until reaching the Rocky Mountains. This stops the process, since the Rockies are moving westward and terminating any further formation of extensional basins.
BELOW ARE SHOWN 3 GOOGLE EARTH PHOTOS, WHICH ALLOW SEVERAL MOVEMENTS TO BE INVESTIGATED. MEXICO TO THE GARLOCK FAULT AT SANTA BARBARA, CA HAS A YOUNG SET OF GRIDS (INDICATING SHEAR, ACCORDING TO THE SHARPNESS OF THE PRESENTATON- FAINT IS OLDEST). THESE DYNAMICS PERTAIN NOT ONLY TO THE FORMATION OF B&R EXTENSIONS AND ROTATIONS, BUT THEY ALSO ALLOW THE ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOR OF CENTRAL AMERICA TO BE EXAMINED. THIS RESULTS IN INTERFERENCE OF LATER STRIKES WITH THE KT EXCTINCTION AND FORMATION OF THE ROCKY-SIERRA OCCIDENTAL RANGES. THIS DOES NOT SOLVE THESE ANOMALIES, BUT DOES YIELD INSIGHTS AS TO HOW ASTEROIDS CREATE ACCELERATED MOVEMENT OF MOUNTAINS, BASINS, AND THRUSTS (WHICH ARE SENSED BY CORIOLIS DYNAMICS AND WHICH CREATE ROTATIONS ABOUT ANY INDEPENDANT MOVEMENT IN THE CRUST):
HOW DO THE ASTEROIDS INFLUENCE STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY? IT IS APPEARING MORE AND MORE, THAT MAJOR FEATURES- SUCH AS THE ROCKY AND APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS- WERE ACCELERATED IN THEIR DEVELOPMENT BY STRAINS FORMED BY LARGE ASTEROIDS. THESE STRIKES "SOUPED UP" ON-GOING MOVEMENTS CAUSED BY EARTH TIDES AND WEST-SHIFT OF BULGES, DOMES AND MOUNTAINS.
ABOVE PHOTO SHOWS THE ANTIPODE FOR THE KT STRIKE, ASSUMING THAT THE ASTEROID HIT "HEAD ON" AND CREATED A REACTION ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE GLOBE(DECCAN FLOOD BASALTS), WHICH HAS BEEN UNCOVERED BY THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT SLIDING OVER THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS- LEAVING ITS IMPRINT ON THE INDIAN OCEAN BOTTOM. ALSO THE PHOTO CALCULATES THE MOVEMENT RATE- AS INDICATED BY THE DATA SHOWN ON THE PHOTO.
I HAVE FOUND THAT THERE IS A LARGE CIRCULAR FEATURE WHICH IS LIKELY FOR THE (PRECEDING KT) PERMIAN-TRIASSIC STRIKE AND EXTINCTION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN NEAR ANTARCTICA. THIS INCLUDES THE ISLAND OF FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANARCTICA ISLANDS- WHICH CAN BE CHECKED IN THE WIKIPEDIA FOR PERTINENCE. NOTICE THAT THERE IS OVERLAP WITH THE KT ANTIPODE, AND THIS CREATES SOME UNCERTAINTY: ONE OF THE VOLCANIC ISLANDS- KERGULEN- IS SHOWN FOR AN INDICATION OF LOCAL ACTIVITY, BUT IT APPPEARS TO BE LATE TERTIARY:
The Permian-Triassic asteroid strike and its antipode creates a major complication in the NW USA and Vancouver province, Canada. The area north of the USA border and the Darrington-Devil Mountain fault has been dragged in a CW rotation- all the way to the Panhandle of Alaska. This is shown in the following Google photos, found while searching for craters in the Indian Ocean:
Notice that there is a 3250 km diameter depression in the region north of Antarctica,-which has islands near its rim: French Southern and Antarctica Islands. This depression is near 17,000 feet at its center, and it decreases in depth in all directions. This is insufficient to be certain that it is a crater, but the circular sedimentation or siltation pattern is a major indicator. Further, the islands nearby are volcanic (but appear to be of a Late Tertiary age). Transforms in the circle of interest converge on the region, and there is a major scarp south of Australia (sub sea) which indicates a parallel-ness with Antarctica and the region of siltation. The only feature missing of my indicators for asteroid craters is that of fragmentation of islands (which occur in all others studied: East Indies, West Indies and Northern Canada-Hudson Bay), but the feature is so large on a global scale, that Australia and the East Indies could yield the expected fragmentation pattern. My confidence is high for this assessment, particularly when there is a concomitant rise in most of the antipodal province of British Columbia- where there is an obvious rotation. The entity should be spiraling CCW if rising, but the age of 250 m.y. has probably abated- the expansion, created sinking from the original uplift. Another feature searched is that of flood basalts- which have been present in the antipodes of KT and EO (B&R to CP). These would be of Triassic age, and I will search the literature. Should the Tonga trench occur as a result of the pear-shaped earth having been created by PTr, the fact that it is shearing at the largest rate measured for the entire earth hints of another complication. BELOW ARE SHOWN SOME PHOTOS OF FLOOD BASALT REGIONS IN CANADA- WHICH ARE POSSIBILITIES FOR ANTIPODAL GEOTHERMAL EXTRUSIONS (FROM ASTEROID STRIKES TRANSMISSION OF MECHANICAL-THERMAL SURGES THROUGH THE EARTH):
KERGUELEN SUB-SEA PROVINCE IS SOME SUBSTANTIATION OF INDIAN OCEAN ASTEROID STRIKE ACTIVITY (70-100 M.Y. BASALTS):
The “guts” of the whole matter of asteroids striking and having long-lasting effects is that it is unknown just how a strike propagates through the CORE AND MANTLE of the earth. Is it a mechanical wave, encountering viscosity some 10 billion times that of water, or is it a combination of compression-convection of heat through a somewhat fluid core?
STAY TUNED, AS I FIND SOLUTIONS TO OUTSTANDING INVESTIGATIONS AS I ANALYZE AND MAKE CONCLUSIONS ABOUT EVENTS FOR THE ENTIRE EARTH. NOVA SCOTIA FLOOD BASALTS PORTRAY AN OPENING IN THE TRIASSIC; THIS IS CLOSER THAN OTHERS FOUND, WHICH MAY BE RELATED TO THE PTr ASTEROID STRIKE IN CANADA (IT IS UNKNOWN HOW RAPID THE TRANSMISSION OF A STRIKE SURGE OCCURS, AS IT PROPAGATES THROUGH THE EARTH):
FOR COMPARISON, BELOW IS SHOWN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN AND THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE, MAR. THIS REGION HAS BEEN IMPRINTED BY THE AFTERMATH OF THE PTr STRIKE NEAR
AUSTRALIA, AND THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND COLLISION OF THE REGION INDICATES A DIFFERENT ANGLE OF ATTACK: