Friday, October 23, 2009
Rejuvenation Cones created by Coriolis Rotation-Friction
Rejuvenation Cones created by Coriolis Rotation
Observed in the SW USA Colorado Plateau States, basaltic cones are created by the local rotation of a Coriolis cell creating HEAT by brittle Crust friction, such that the spiraling upward of rising magma spins Counter-clockwise, while cooling and sinking rock rotates in the opposite direction- CW. By the general concept of the spinning Earth creating a smaller velocity vector the further the distance from the Equator, the rotation must be preceded by an independent action- either thermal expansion, meteoric or other Mechanically-motivated movement. This could include subduction by density difference between colliding blocks of crust or rising salt domes.
This conclusion can easily be viewed for the island of Maui, where there are two cooling and settling extinct volcanoes- Haleakala and its sister to the northwest. Between the two basaltic mountains exists a river valley- which is at the junction of the higher elevation landmasses. Because both ancient volcanic mountains are cooling and rotating CW, there is developed friction in the Crust, similarly to “grinding the gears in the transmission” for two gears moving at different velocities. This is shown below for Maui and its small cone Waikapu. Considerable time of settling is required for the Coriolis friction to develop, and these cones develop long after the magma has ceased rising by thermal expansion (1 m.y. or more). Below is shown the pertinent Google Earth photos indicating shear direction and locating Waikapu:
Conversely, for a single cooling and settling volcanic island, such as Oahu (at least for the area near Honolulu), the rotational friction occurs between the island and its adjacent Crust, so that the late cones occur near the coast. This is seen for Diamondhead, Koko Head and other craters noticed just offshore:
Kauai is currently being debated as whether it has a single extrusion site, but since it is circular (and the entire Coriolis concept produces arcuate images- such as rotating weather cells), it is shown for contrast:
My analysis is shown below, which- if correct- shows that there are several movements portrayed by Coriolis rotations:
a. A great rift or graben has developed south of the original 5 m.y. extrusion;
b. A depression or sinking, has developed on the east of the island, below Waialeale- the highest elevation now; and,
c. Rejuvenation extrusions have developed much later than the main buiilding phase, and I take it that these are due to Coriolis rotation as shown in the sinking cell- creating shear and HEAT.
In diagram form, there is a more easily understood portrait: